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ARS/ NET Exam Syllabus for Environmental Science

 28-NOV-2012

Jagranjosh.com provides you the syllabus for Environmental Science for the benefit of the aspirants preparing for ARS and NET Examination 2012. Candidates can go through the syllabus and prepare better for this exam.

Unit 1

Definition and scope of environment science and its interrelationship with other sciences and agriculture; Origin and evolution of the earth and its environs-atmosphere: hydrosphere, Lithosphere and biosphere; Biogeochemical cycles; Components of environment - biotic, abiotic and social; Weather and climate; History and evolution of human settlement; Effect of various developmental activities on environment.

Unit 2

Basic ecological concepts - habitat ecology, systems ecology, synecology, autecology; Ecosystem concept; Structure and functions of biotic and abiotic components; Energy in ecosystems and environment; Energy exchange and productivity-food chains and food webs-ecological pyramids, nutrient cycles and recycle pathways; Population - characteristics and measurement; Communities - habitats, niches, population dynamics, species and individual in the ecosystem; Recent trends in ecology; Types characteristic features, structure and function of forest, grassland, plantation, desert; Aquatic and agro-ecosystem; Ecological succession - types and causes.

Unit 3

Biodiversity concepts, levels and types, changes in tune and space, evolution, centres of origin of crops, species concept; Significance of biodiversity; Plant genetic resources, exploration and collection; Crop domestication, plant introductions; Migration and utilization; IUCN clauses and concept of threatened and endangered species; Biogeography; Principles of conservation of biological diversity in-situ and ex-situ. Causes of loss of biodiversity: introduction of exotics and invasive plants; Methods of conservation, role of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves; National and global conservation measures, institutions and conventions; Indian Biodiversity Act 2002; Biodiversity and economics with special reference to India; Biodiversity in relation to global environmental changes; Biodiversity hot spots in India and world; Biodiversity and life security.

Unit 4

Composition of air; Air pollution: sources and classification of major air pollutants; Smoke, smog, photochemical smog and SPM; Methods of air pollution monitoring; Effects of air pollutants on crops, vegetation, animals and human health; mitigation measures for combating air pollution; Factors affecting plant response to air pollution; Acid rain, physiological and biochemical effects of SO2, HF, PAN and O3 on vegetation, toxicity symptoms on vegetation, defence mechanism against air pollutants in plants, sensitive and tolerant plant species to air pollutants. National and international laws and policies on air pollution; Permissible limits of air pollutants in the residential, commercial and industrial areas; Noise pollution-concept and effects.

Unit 5

Soil and water pollution: sources and types of soil and water pollutants; Effects of pollutants on soil health and productivity; Radioactive pollutants, their life time and disposal; Point and non-point sources of water pollution, major types of water pollutants, their impacts on environment and agro-ecosystems; Pollution in fresh water bodies, ponds, lakes, rivers and wells. Effects of soil and water pollutants on crop plants, animals, microorganism and human health; National and International laws and maximum permissible limits of soil and water pollutants; Biomagnification and its impact on loss of biodiversity; Physical, chemical and biological properties of wastes; Effluent treatment processes for major industries viz. distilleries; paper and pulp, sugar, sewage and other agro-industrial wastes; Resource, product recovery, recycling and value addition to wastes; Biodegradation and bioconversion of organic wastes, composting, landfills; Vermicomposting, biogas. animal feed. mushroom cultivation etc.; Use of sludge, flyash, effluents and other agro industrial wastes in agriculture; Microbial, chemical and phytoremediation processes; Microbiological and public health aspects of waste disposal; Heavy metal contamination of environments, source and sinks of heavy metals.

Unit 6

Climate change: Global warming and greenhouse effect, sources and sinks of green house gases, major GHGs, atalytical techniques of monitoring greenhouse gases in atmosphere; Global climate change - its history and future predictions. Impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water resources, sea level rise, livestock, fisheries, coastal ecosystem and dynamics and pests and diseases and overall ecological processes; Climate change and food security; Contribution of agriculture and forestry to climate change; International conventions on climate change; Stratospheric ozone layer depletion-effect of UV radiation on plants and human health; Adaptation and mitigation strategies of climate change, global dimming agrobiological effects of CO2 fertilization on crops; Carbon sequestration and clean development mechanism.

Unit 7

Energy consumption pattern in urban and rural India; Types of renewable sources of energy; Solar energy: concepts of heat and mass transfer; design of solar thermal system and their applications in heating. cooling. distillation. drying. dehydration etc., design of solar photovoltaic systems, power generation for rural electrification-water pumping, solar ponds; Wind energy for mechanical and electrical power generation, types of wind mills; Geothermal and tidal energy; Biogas from animal and agricultural wastes, types of biogas plants, utilization of biogas for heating, cooking lighting and power generation; Characteristics of biogas slurry and its utilization; Energy from biogas; Liquid fuels from petrocrops, energy plantation crops; Concepts of producer gas; characterization of materials for producer gas, types of gasifiers; Animals draft power and its utilization in rural sector; Briquetting of agro-wastes for fuel; Potential of renewable energy sources in India, Integrated rural energy programme; Causes of failure of biogas plants in rural India.

Unit 8

Natural resources of India: land, soil, water and forest and their conservation and management including wildlife; Effects of deforestation on soil erosion; Land degradation; Environment and rural economy; Wasteland: their extent, characteristics and reclamation; Soil and water conservation, rain water harvesting and watershed management; Desertification and biological invasion; Rain water harvesting; Mineral resources: use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources; Disaster management: floods, droughts, earthquakes; Tsunami, cyclones and landslides; Nuclear hazards; Environmental impact assessment for physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic factors; Legislative implications of EIA, environmental impacts assessment and environmental auditing; Major global environmental issues; Human population and environment: population growth, variation among nations. Population explosion - Family welfare programme; World food resources; World food problems; Environment and human health; Environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions; Environmental policies and laws in India; Public environmental awareness; Human rights; Role of information technology in environmental and human health; Industrial pollutants; Sea weeds and their utilization in agar, alginic acid, carrageenan, agarose and agaropectin production; Impact of green revolution on the environments.

Unit 9

Frequency distribution, mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Normal, binomial and poisson distribution; Correlations - partial and multiple; Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of significance F and Chi-square (X2) tests; Experimental designs - basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs.

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