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Vocab Test for SBI PO Exam 2017: ‘What is stopping India’s progress?’

Feb 15, 2017 18:09 IST
SBI PO Exam 2017
SBI PO Exam 2017

You cannot underestimate the importance of vocabulary since it is required in all the areas of communication i.e. listening, reading and writing etc. So, learning many words is useful for writers and speakers. You will be able to choose words with great precision and you will be able to understand comprehension in a better manner. It also helps you communicate better.

Article: ‘What is stopping India’s progress? Here’s what Economic Survey has to say’

Economic Survey 2016-17 says there are several challenges that may impede India's progress: They are: a) ambivalence about property rights and the private sector, b) deficiencies in State capacity, especially in delivering essential services and c) inefficient redistribution.

To overcome these challenges, the Economic Survey has advocated reforms in several sectors to unleash economic dynamism and social justice in the country. The Survey, which was tabled by Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in the Parliament today, says, “India needs an evolution in the underlying economic vision across the political spectrum and further reforms are not just a matter of overcoming vested interests that obstruct them.”

According to the Survey, there are difficulties in privatising public enterprises, even for firms where economists have made strong arguments that they belong in the private sector.

To address this, the Survey argues for the need further privatize the Civil Aviation, Banking and Fertilizer sectors.

According to the Survey, the “capacity of the State in delivering essential services such as health and education is weak due to low capacity, with high levels of corruption, clientelism, rules and red tape.

“At the level of the states, competitive populism is more in evidence than competitive service delivery,” the Survey says, adding, “Constraints to policy making due to strict adherence to rules and abundant caution in bureaucratic decision-making favours status quo”.

The Survey also says that redistribution of resources by the government is far from “efficient” in targeting the poor. With respect to current programmes of the government, it says, “spending is likely to be greatest in states with better institutions and which will therefore have fewer poor.”

Earlier in the day, President Pranab Mukherjee inaugurated the Budget session of Parliament, while Prime Minister Narendra Modi expressed hope there would be good discussion over the budget by political parties and which would be used for forwarding people-friendly development measures.

“Yet another new tradition comes into effect from today. Budget is being presented one month ahead and the rail Budget has now become a part of the Union Budget,” PM Modi told reporters ahead of the inauguration of Budget session.
“There will be extensive debate in the Parliament on this issue and it will also reflect the ensuing benefits from the decision in the days to come. I am optimistic that all political parties will join hands to ensure a healthy debate in the Parliament in the larger public interest,” he added.

In his address to the joint session of Parliament, President Mukherjee hailed Modi government’s development initiatives and its efforts to fight against corruption and black money.

Breaking from the past Budget practices, Modi government has advanced the dates of presentation of Economic Survey and the Union Budget by a month. Moreover, the practice of presenting a separate Railway Budget has also been done away with and merged with the Union Budget. While Economic Survey was tabled in the parliament today, the Union Budget would be tabled tomorrow.

1. Impede (verb) (बाधा डालना): is to make something more difficult to happen.
Synonym: Obstruct, block, curb, disrupt
Antonym: Advance, permit, encourage, allow
Sentence: There is no need to impedethe paths to a closer relationship.

2. Ambivalence (noun) (दुविधा): is the state of uncertainty or fluctuation.
Synonym: Doubt, hesitancy, uncertainty, fluctuation
Antonym: Certainty, sure, success, decisiveness
Sentence: Couples should try to avoid ambivalence in relationships at all costs.

3. Advocated (verb) (समर्थन करना): refers to publicly support or suggest an idea, development or way of doing something.
Synonym: Back, encourage, favour, propose
Antonym: Block, conceal, condemn, disapprove
Sentence: He is a true Modi supporter and always advocated him in his discussions.

4. Unleash (verb) (छुड़ाना): is to remove a leash from an animal or to suddenly release a violent force that cannot be controlled.
Synonym: Discharge, free, release, vent
Antonym: Hold, keep, restrain, regulate
Sentence: Let us unleash the precious resources which we are not using wisely.

5. Spectrum (noun) (तरंग): is a band of colorsas seen in a rainbow or it also refers to classify something in terms of its position between two extreme points.
Synonym: Gamut, range, scope, extent
Antonym: Individual, monochromatic
Sentence: Colors are related to the spectrum for the eyes as the music notes are to the ears.

6. Evolution (noun) (विकास): refers to the way in which living things change and develop over millions of years.
Synonym: Change, enlargement, progression, transformation
Antonym: Decrease, lessening, shrinkage, reduction
Sentence: Charles Darwin theory of “survival of fittest” still holds relevance.

7. Vested (verb) (निहित): is to hold something completely or permanently.
Synonym: Absolute, settled, complete, fixed
Antonym: Conditional, bare, unclad, raw
Sentence: The union of Akhilesh Yadav and Rahul Gandhi has vested political interests with each other.

8. Obstruct (verb) (रोकना): is to block or get in the way of something or someone.
Synonym: Block, prevent, hamper, impede
Antonym: Advance, encourage, promote, push
Sentence: The several falls in the river obstructed the flow of the sailing ships.

9. Clientelism (noun) (ग्राहक ): refers to an exchange of goods and services for political support, in exchange of some special privilegefor benefit. This type of social order is entirely dependent on relations of patronage. (*Source: Wikipedia)
Synonym: None
Antonym: None
Sentence: Brands around the world are affected by the wave of clientelism.

10. Status quo (noun) (यथापूर्वस्थिति): refers to the current state of things.
Synonym: State of affairs, status, circumstances, usual
Antonym: Lapse, reverse, revolution, setback
Sentence: India and Pakistan should observe the state of neutrality in order to establish peaceful the relationship among them.

Question (1-5): Answer the following as directed

1. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘hailed’ (अभिवादन)

1. Whisper
2. Dribble
3. Address
4. Yell
5. Other than those given in options

Solution: Option (3)

Explanation: The given word refers to cheer/greet or welcome someone. From the above-given options, option (3) is a right choice as the synonym of the word.

2. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘red tape’ (दफ्तर शाही)

1. Bureaucracy
2. Green belt
3. White revolution
4. International Klein Blue
5. Other than those given in options

Solution: Option (1)

Explanation: The given word is an idiom which refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules, especially related to government and other corporations. Hence, from the given options, option (1) is the correct choice as the synonym of the word.

3. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘populism’ (लोकप्रियता)

1. Secularism
2. Constitutional
3. Common
4. Socialist
5. Other than those given in options

Solution: Option (2)

Explanation: The given word refers to support for the concerns of ordinary people. So, from the given options, option (2) is an apt choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.

4. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘constraints’ (बाधाओं)

1. Freedom
2. Liberty
3. Aggression
4. Restraint
5. Other than those given in options

Solution: Option (4)

Explanation: The given word refers to an act of putting limitation or restriction. So, from the given options, option (4) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.

5. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘merged’ (विलय होना)

1. Disconnect
2. Divide
3. Converge
4. Separate
5. Other than those given in options

Solution: Option (3)

Explanation: The given word refers to combine or cause to combine to form a single entity.Hence, from all the above options, option (3) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.

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