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Economic Survey of India 2012-13: Human Development

 14-MAR-2013

Union Finance Minister P. Chidambaram on 27 February presented the Economic Survey 2012-13 in the Lok Sabha of the Parliament. Economic Survey is presented every year, just before the Union Budget. It is a flagship annual document of the Ministry of Finance, Government of India.

In the economic survey 2012-13, the government's targeted policies for the poor, with the prospect of fewer leakages, can help better translate outlays into outcomes.

Fifteenth Quarterly Survey Report on Effect of Economic Slowdown on Employment in India April to June 2012

Overall employment in June 2012 over June 2011 increased by 6.94 lakh, with the highest increase recorded in IT/BPO (4.44 lakh) sector followed by 1.70 lakh in Textiles including Apparels, 0.45 lakh in Transport, 0.26 lakh in Metals, 0.19 lakh in Gems and Jewellery and 0.11 lakh in Automobiles sectors during the period. On the other hand, employment in handloom/powerloom and leather sectors marginally declined during this period.

In export oriented units, employment at the overall level increased by 5.81 lakh whereas in the non-exporting units, it increased by 1.10 lakh during the period June 2012 over June 2011.

The results of the15th quarterly survey revealed that there was a sustained and consecutive increase in employment in the sectors covered at overall level during the last eleven quarters with a total addition of 30.73 lakh employment during this recovery period.

Socio-Economic Profile of States and Inter-State Comparisons

• Bihar has the highest decadal (2001-11) growth rate of population (25.07 percent), while Kerala has the lowest rate (4.86 percent).
• In 2011, Kerala has the highest sex ratio with 1084 females per 1000 males, followed by Tamil Nadu (995), while Haryana is at the bottom (877).
• The best performers in terms of growth during 2011-12 are Bihar (16.71 per cent) followed by Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
• In terms of growth in per capita income, the best performer is Bihar (15.44 per cent) followed by Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra due to high growth in gross state domestic product (GSDP) in 2011 12.
• The poverty estimates indicate that the highest poverty headcount ratio (HCR) exists in Bihar at 53.5 per cent as against the national average of 29.8 per cent.
• Bihar has the lowest MPCE both in rural and urban areas at 780 Rupees (with 65 percent food share) and 1238 Rupees (with 53 percent food share) respectively. In comparison, Kerala has the highest in both rural and urban areas at 1835 Rupees (with 46 percent food share) and 2413 Rupees (with 40 percent food share) respectively.
• The unemployment rate (per 1000) among the major states is the lowest in Gujarat (18) and highest in Kerala (73) and Bihar (73) in urban areas and the lowest in Rajasthan (4) and again highest in Kerala (75) in rural areas.
• Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2011 is the lowest in Kerala (12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (59) against the national average of 44.
• Birth rate is lowest in Kerala (15.2) and highest in Uttar Pradesh (27.8) against the national average of 21.8.
• Death rate is lowest in West Bengal (6.2) and highest in Odisha (8.5) against the national average of 7.1.
• In terms of decadal growth rate in bank branches, Haryana (59.5 percent) has the highest growth and Bihar the lowest (14.4 percent). Even a north-eastern state like Assam (16.5 percent) is better placed than Bihar.

Some important poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes

Mahatma Gandhi NREGA: This flagship programme of the government aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work with the stipulation of one-third participation of women.

Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY): The annual budgetary provision for the SJSRY for the year 2012- 13 was 838 crore Rupees and of this 516.77 crore Rupees had been released up to 7 February 2013. A total of 406947 people benefited from this scheme during 2012-13.

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY): The scheme provides smart card-based cashless health insurance cover of ` 30,000 per family per annum on a family floater basis to BPL families in the unorganized sector with the premium shared on 75:25 basis by central and state governments.

The Unorganized Workers Social Security Act 2008 and National Social Security Fund: A National Social Security Fund with initial allocation of 1000 crore Rupees to support schemes for weavers, toddy tappers, rickshaw pullers, beedi workers, etc. has been established.

Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY): The Janashree Bima Yojana (JBY) has now been merged with the AABY to provide better administration of life insurance cover to the economically backward sections of society.

Status of certain Health Indicators is as follows:

• Crude Birth Rate (CBR) (per 1000 population): 21.8 (2011)
• Crude Death Rate (CDR) (per 1000 population): 7.1 (2011)
• Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (per woman): 2.5 (2010)
• Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) (per 100000 live births): 212 (2007-09)
• IMR (per 1000 live births) - Rural: 48 (2011)
• IMR (per 1000 live births) - Urban: 29 (2011)
• Child (0-4 years) Mortality Rate (per 1000 children): 13.3 (2010)
• Life Expectancy at Birth (Total): 66.1 (2006-10)

Welfare and Development of SCs, STs, OBCs, and Other Weaker Sections

• The amount of subsidy admissible is 50 per cent of the project cost, subject to a maximum of 10000 Rupees per beneficiary. During 2012-13, the physical target is to cover over 12 lakh beneficiaries.
• For the welfare and development of STs, an outlay of 4090 crore Rupees has been made in the Annual Plan for 2012-13.
• For economic empowerment of STs, financial support is extended through the National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC) in the form of loans and micro-credit at concessional rates of interest for income-generating activities.
• The corpus of the Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) had been enhanced from 100 crore Rupees in 2005-6 to 750 crore Rupees till March 2012.
• The five communities--Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Parsis- notified as minority communities, constitute 18.42 percent of the total population of the country. The plan outlay for the development of minorities was raised from 2850 crore Rupees in 2011-12 to 3135 crore Rupees in 2012-13.
• Central assistance is provided to states for educational development of OBCs. Under the Pre- Matric Scholarship for OBCs Scheme, against an allocation of 50 crore Rupees during 2012-13, 35.45 crore Rupees was released to states up to December 2012.
• Some important schemes for the welfare of disabled persons include: Scheme of Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids/ Appliances (ADIP) and Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS).
• The Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP), aimed at covering 64000 beneficiaries during 2012-13. During 2012-13 (up to December 2012), 8.06 crore Rupees had been released against a revised allocation of 17 crore Rupees.



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