Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapour, so that the water condenses and "precipitates".
Earth's heat-budget or Earth's radiation balance refers to the net flow of energy into Earth in the form of shortwave radiation and the outgoing infrared long-wave radiation into space.
Atmospheric circulation is a movement of air at a larger scale by which the earth's surface is covered and distributed over by thermal energy
Rutherford Scattering is a phenomenon explained by Ernest Rutherford in 1911
Compton observed the scattering of x-rays from electrons in a carbon target and found scattered x-rays with a longer wavelength than those incident upon the target.
Electromagnetic scattering is the physical effect of an electromagnetic wave, such as light or radio waves, hitting an object
In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.
Single and multiple scattering contributions to the circumsolar radiation along the almucantar and sun vertical have been computed by a Gauss-Seidel solution to the radiative transfer equation.
The dielectric constant is the relative permittivity of a dielectric material. It is an important parameter in characterizing capacitors. Momentum is a corner stone concept in Physics. It is a conserved quantity.
Thinner, lighter high-index lenses are especially recommended if you have a strong eyeglass prescription for nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism.
The refractive index is retrieved from direct phase and amplitude measurements for transmission and reflection, which are all in excellent agreement with simulations. The reflection angle is equal to the incidence angle, and the amount of light that is reflected is determined by the reflectivity of the surface.
The refractive index can be defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum and the phase speed of light in a material.
The globe is divided into three temperature zones.
1. Tropical Zone : It extends between Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn. High temperature prevails throughout the year.
Due to horizontal differences in air pressure, airflows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Horizontal movement of the air is called wind.
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a result of its weight, above a unit area of the earth’s surface is called atmospheric pressure. It is expressed in millibars (mb) and measured.
Climate is the average weather condition and variations in both space and time over a large area.
Humid Tropical Climates The Tropical Rain Forest/Equatorial Climate : This climate is found in a belt 0° to 25°N and S. The annual average temperature is 27°C and rainfall is heavy.
Cloud is a mass of minute droplets of water or tiny crystals of ice formed by the condensation of water vapour in free air at considerable elevations.
The vast expanse of air which envelops the earth all around is called the atmosphere. It extends to thousands of kms. It protects the earth’s surface from the sun’s harmful, ultraviolet rays. It also regulates temperature, preventing the earth from becoming too hot or too cold. The major constituents of air in the atmosphere are Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.93%) and Carbon dioxide (0.03%). Besides water vapour, dust particles, smoke, salts and other impurities are present in air in varying quantities. On the basis of temperature, the atmosphere is divided into five layers: