Polymers are made up of various molecules which combine together to form long chains. They usually have high melting and boiling points like PVC (poly vinyl chloride), polystyrene, cellulose. Therefore, the list of polymers with their uses is helpful in the academic and competitive exam preparations.
Metals are the elements which form positive ions by losing electrons or donate electrons. Metals are also known as electropositive elements as they form positive ions on losing electrons. In this article we will see some important facts about metals which will be helpful in various exams preparations.
Metals are the element that loses electrons easily and have positive ions or cations. It consists of metallic bonds. In this article we will see what are metals, ores, its properties, etc. Also, a list of important metals with ores is given which will give an idea of metals and from where they are extracted and help with your various exam preparations through which you will be able to learn the formulas of elements.
Alloy plays a very important role in our daily life. Utensils in the kitchen, vehicles, mobile phones etc are various alloys which are being used and made by human. Here, we are providing the list of important alloys and their uses which will help in revising at the time of examination.
Smog is derived from two words i.e. smoke and fog which is also described as a mixture of various gases with dust and water vapour and makes breathing difficult. In 17 years such an alarming situation raised in Delhi which raised health emergency. In this article we will discuss about the sources of smog, how it affects our health and how it is formed; what are the necessary precautions that we can take etc.
A salt is compound that formed from an acid by the replacement of the hydrogen in the acid by a metal. They are formed when acids reacts with base. Lets us find out the list of various salts and their uses which may be helpful for competetive examinations.
The Complete Study Material of “General Science” i.e. Physics, Chemistry and Biology is given in a compiled form that will be very helpful for the students of 6th to 12th class, undergraduates and those who are preparing for competitive exams familiar with the diversity of the subject and make them understand the concepts.
The chemical substance due to the presence of which rate of chemical reaction is increased or decreased but does not take part in chemical reaction itself is called catalyst and the process is called catalysis. Jons Jacob Berzelius discovered the chemical phenomena of catalysis in 1835 and he confirmed that the rate of reaction can be affected by the presence of any chemical substance.
Fibres are the solid substance which has long chained structure and whose length is much larger than its breadth is called fibres. These are the polymers of so many simple molecules which are composed and combined in laboratories. The synthetic substances Rayon, Nylon, Polyester etc are the examples of synthetic fibres.
Explosives are those substance which provides extreme heat and energy and a sharp cracking sound on combustion. They usually have less potential energy than fuels, but their high rate of energy produces a great blast pressure.For a chemical to be an explosive, it must exhibit all of the following: Rapid expansion (i.e., rapid production of gases or rapid heating of surroundings);evolution of heat;rapidity of reaction; and initiation of reaction.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage which is prepared by the composition of various fermented substances and the amount of alcohol is different in different types of wine. There are various types of 'wine like beer, champagne, cider, port and sherry, whisky, Rum, Brandy, and Gin etc. Also in the beer the amount of alcohol is extremely low, while in the Rum this amount is extremely high and the champagne is the most costly wine among all.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. Firstly the glass was manufactured in Egypt. Ordinary glass is manufactured by the composition of various substances like silica, bleaching powder, oxides of alkaline metals, calcium oxide (lime) etc.
Drugs (medicines) are something that treats, prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease. Two things make a drug important: Firstly, it is used to treat a large number of people with a range of health problems and; secondly, these drugs spurred the pharmaceutical industry to further research and innovation. It is manufactured or produce not only through the extraction of medicinal plant like aloe Vera, tulsi plant, garlic etc. but also through organic synthesis.
Hydrocarbons are the Organic compounds obtained by the simple combination of hydrogen and carbon like petrol, diesel, and kerosene oil etc. It is usually divided into two categories: Aliphatic hydrocarbon; Aromatic hydrocarbon.
A fertilizer or fertiliser is that substance which is used to make soil more fertile such as manure or a mixture of nitrates. It is applied to the soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Hence, we can say in other words that the fertilizers are the chemical substances which are directly respondent for the substantial growth of the plants (trees) or crops and being supply the nutrients in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium etc and keep the soils fertile.
Salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.It is composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). They may be simple salts such as NaCl, KCl, and Na2SO4; acid salts like NaHCO3 and NaH2PO4; or double salts like KAl (SO4)2.
Inorganic chemistry is that chemistry which studied the synthesis and behaviour of inorganic and organ metallic compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds).
Acid is a water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt. In other word, it is a compound which contains replaceable hydrogen atom or atoms, a part or whole of which can be replaced by means of a metal or a positive radical. For Example: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 etc are acids because they contain replaceable hydrogen atom or atoms.
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. Organic molecules are used by human in number of ways; it is used in industries like foods, pharmaceuticals, fuels etc. Alkanes consist of chemicals like propane, octane, and methane. These are used extensively as fuels for things like automobile gasoline and home heating/cooking fuel.
The substances that exist in the universe are made up of atoms (consists charge particles electron and proton)/molecules (made up of atom s)/ions). Chemical bonding is the binding force of the constituents’ atoms of the molecule to maintain a mutual atomic order and a definite but specific geometric shape. There are three types of chemical bonding – Electrovalent or Ionic, Covalent bonding and Co-ordinate covalent bonding.
S.P.L Sorenson, a Danish biochemist in 1909 devised a scale known as pH to represents the H+ ion concentration of an aqueous solution. The pH value of any solution is a number which simply represents the acidity and basicity of that solution. The pH value of any solution is numerically equal to the logarithm of the inverse of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. Hence, the pH of solution is referred to as the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion.
The Galvanic Cells is a device that transforms chemical energy into electric energy. It is the common application of electro chemistry which is also called battery. It was invented by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta which has capability of producing a voltage. It has two conductive electrodes, called the anode and the cathode. The anode is an electrode where oxidation occurs. The cathode is an electrode where reduction takes place.
The Earth is the main source of minerals and ores. Most of the elements do not found in Free State because of their reactive tendencies. Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, lead etc are the metals found in combined state. Minerals are the natural materials in which the metals and their compounds are found in earth. Ores are those minerals from which metal are extracted conveniently and profitably. These ores contain good percentage of metal.
Non-Metal are those elements which do not exhibit the metallic characteristics. In the periodic table non-metals are kept almost in the right most. In modern periodic table there are 22 non-metals in which there are 11 gases, 1 liquid and 10 solid. Bromine occurs in the state of liquid and hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine etc are found in gaseous forms. But carbon, sulphur, phosphorous, iodine etc solid non-metals.
There are 118 elements known at present. There are similarities as well as differences are the properties of these elements on the basis of their, all the element can be divided three types: Metal; non- Metal; metalloid Metals are those elements which losses electrons and provides cation. In the periodic table, these elements are located and confined towards left and middle. Also the elements which are located extremely left have most metallic properties.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the used solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration.
The Electrochemistry is that branch of chemistry under which those chemical reactions are studied which occurs through passing the electric current. It is also examines or analyse the phenomena that resulting from combined chemical and electrical effects. The electrolysis is a phenomenon of electro chemistry. In this chemistry, substances are indentified on the basis of good or bad conductor electricity when they are in liquefied state. Electrolyte and non- electrolyte are two types substance (compound) identified in electro chemistry.
A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure; they consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, inter-metallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.
Metallurgy is a process of extracting metal through various processes from their respective ores that directly or indirectly influence the physical and chemical activities involve in the production of metals. It is that part of science that studies the physical and chemical behaviour of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures. It is also called the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.
The phenomena of self disintegration by emitting certain invisible rays by the naturally occurring substances, elements and its compounds is called radioactivity. This invisible rays emancipating from the radioactive substances are called radioactive rays and also it can only occurs due to instability of the atoms. The phenomenon of radioactivity was discovered by A.H Becquerel in 1886 purely by accident. Later Pierre and Madam Curie showed similar phenomenon in other metals like plutonium, Francium and Radium.