India is a country of rivers. More than 400 big and small rivers are found, which can be divided into 23 large and 200 small river basins. More than 400 big and small rivers are found, which can be divided into 23 large and 200 small river basins. Here, we are giving the ‘Indian Drainage System: A Detailed Summary’ which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Indian Drainage System is distinguished as Himalayan Drainage System and Peninsular Drainage. Here, we are giving general knowledge list of the east and west flowing rivers with their characteristics which can be used as quick revision GK study material in the preparation of different competitive examinations.
The Indus Water Treaty is the treaty between the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan for the optimum utilisation of the waters of the Indus system of rivers. It was signed under the arbitration of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now World Bank) in Karachi (Pakistan) on September 19, 1960.
The sharing of waters of the Kaveri River has been an apple of discord between the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The genesis of this conflict rests in two agreements in 1892 and 1924 between the erstwhile Madras Presidency and Princely State of Mysore. The Kaveri River distanced 802 kilometres whose 44,000 km2 basin area is in Tamil Nadu and 32,000 km2 basin areas is in Karnataka.
A river is a large, natural stream of flowing water. Rivers are found on every continent and on nearly every kind of land. Rivers have always been important to people. In prehistoric times, people settled along the banks of rivers, where they found fish to eat and water for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Later, people learned that the fertile soil along rivers is good for growing crops. When towns and industries developed, the rushing water of rivers supplied power to operate machinery. Hundreds of factories operated mills powered by rivers.
In India, multipurpose river valley projects were started to meet the critical requirements of irrigation for agriculture, electricity for industries and flood control. As J.L Nehru, stated the importance of the dams at that time can be inferred from the fact that dams by saying “the temples of modern India”. Accordingly, dam construction was given such a high priority in India’s economic plans.
Water is essential for sustenance of all forms of life on earth. It is not evenly distributed all over the world and even its availability at the same locations is not uniform over the year. The River valley projects which are constructed to meet several objectives simultaneously or tackle various problems associated with river valleys in an integrated manner. The basic motive behind the construction of multipurpose river valley projects in India is to meet the critical requirements of irrigation for agriculture, electricity for industries and flood control.
The North East India is a land of paradise and blessed with the abundant natural resources and deep river valley that best suited for the construction of mega dams. Hence, the region often named as ‘future power house of India’. The basic motive behind the construction of multipurpose river valley projects in India is to meet the critical requirements of irrigation for agriculture, electricity for industries and flood control.
Multipurpose river valley projects in India were started with the basic aim of meeting the critical requirements of irrigation for agriculture, electricity for industries and flood control. The importance of the dams at that time can be inferred from the fact that dams were regarded as “the temples of modern India” by J.L Nehru. Tehri Project, Ramganga Project, Tanakpur Project, Gandak Project, Kosi Project, Rihand Project, Bansagar, Matatila Project, Chambal Project, Damodar Valley and Mayurakshi Project are the important river valley project link with Ganga River Basin.
Multipurpose river valley projects are constructed to fulfil the requirements of irrigation for agriculture, electricity for industries and flood control. As J.L Nehru states that, “the temples of modern India”. Bhakra Nangal, Indira Gandhi Project, Pong Project Chamera Project, Thein Project, Nathpa Jhakri Project, Salal, Baglihar Project, Dulhasti Project, Tulbul Project, and Uri Project are important river valley project links with the Indus River System.
Water management is referred to the planning, developing, distributing and optimum use of water resources under defined water polices and regulations. The water cycle, through evaporation and precipitation, maintains hydrological systems which form rivers and lakes and support in a variety of aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands are intermediate forms between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and contain species of plants and animals that are highly moisture dependent.
The Rivers of India carry huge volumes of water per year but it is unevenly distributed both in time and space. There are perennial rivers carrying water throughout the year while the non-perennial rivers have very little water during the dry season. During the rainy season, much of the water is wasted in floods and flows down to the sea. Similarly, when there is a flood in one part of the country, the other area suffers from drought.
A large water body which is surrounded by land is called a lake. Most of the lakes are permanent, while some contain water only during the rainy season. Lakes are formed by the action of glaciers and ice sheets, by wind, river action and by human activities. There are about 500,000 lakes on Earth, storing volume of water equalling 103,000 cubic Km. Most of the world's water lakes are found in North America (25%), Africa (30%) and Asia (20%).
Peninsular River flowing towards the west has short courses and most of these rivers are originates on Western Ghats. The important peninsular rivers flowing towards the west are Shetrunji, Bhadra (Bhadar), Vaitarna, Kalindi, Bedti, Sharavati, Bharsthpuzha, Periyar and Pamba. These rivers cover in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala and hence they are only drainage system other than rainwater for their agricultural activities.
Peninsular Rivers is much older than Himalayan Rivers. There are a large number of rivers flowing towards the east along with their tributaries. There are small rivers which join the Bay of Bengal, though small, these are important in their own right. The Subarnrekha, the Baitarni, the Brahmani, the Vamsadhara, the Penner, the Palar and the Vaigai are important rivers.
The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one. This is evident from the broad, largely-graded shallow valleys, and the maturity of the rivers. The Western Ghats running close to the western coast act as the water divide between the major Peninsular Rivers, discharging their water in the Bay of Bengal and as small rivulets joining the Arabian Sea. Most of the major Peninsular Rivers except Narmada and Tapi flow from west to east.
The Brahmaputra is one of the largest river basins in the world that has its origin in the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake. It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh. Its major left bank tributaries are the Burhi Dihing, Dhansari (South) and Kalang whereas the important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas and Sankosh.
The Ganga is the most important river of India both from the point of view of its basin and cultural significance. It rises from the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. Here, it is known as the Bhagirathi. The important tributaries of Ganga are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi and the Mahanada. The river finally discharges itself into the Bay of Bengal near the Sagar Island.
The Indus System is one of the largest river basins of the world. It is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu (31°15' N latitude and 81°40' E longitude) in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range. It receives a number of Himalayan tributaries such as the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar, the Gasting and the Dras.
Indian drainage system consists of a large number of small and big rivers. It is the outcome of the evolutionary process of the three major physiographic units and the nature and characteristics of precipitation. The Himalayan drainage system includes the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins. The peninsular plateau is drained by Narmada, Tapi, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri.
A Drainage pattern can be defined in the shadow of topographical features from which a stream get runoff, through flow, and groundwater flow which can be divided by topographic barriers called a watershed. A watershed can be defined as all of the stream tributaries that flow to some location along the stream channel.
Multipurpose river valley projects are basically designed for the development of irrigation for agriculture and electricity through the construction of dams. Initially, dams were built only for storing rain water to prevent flooding but now it became multipurpose. Here, we are giving the list of important river-valley projects in India which will help the students for quick revision.