Mahmud was the son of Subuktigin and his policy of conquest brought him in India just like his father who had extended his kingdom beyond the Indus after a reign of 20 years. He was a brilliant general and a mighty conqueror. He led as many as 17 expeditions into India during the years 1000-1206. Out of these the one against the temple of Somnath in 1025 AD was the most important as it gave Mahmud a vast treasure.
The emergence of the Chola power from obscurity, its rise to an important position and its conflicts, first with the Rashtrakutas from beyond the Tungabhadra and later with their successor, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, form the dominant features of the history of South India in the period 850 AD- 1200 AD. Here, we are giving the brief outline of the places which are associated with the Chola Administration.
The emergence of Rajputs was the outcomes of the death of Harshavardhana and the breakup of Pratihara Empire. They dominated the Indian political scene nearly 500 years from the 7th century. They belong to the patrilineal clans of the Indian subcontinent. They rule over Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar as warriors, entrepreneurs, and zamindar (land owners).
From the ancient times, India was famous as the fanatical land and was called golden sparrow. Its wealth and huge population always attracted foreigners. Although the Arabs did not rule for a very long time yet they are called the bridge connectors for India and rest of the world, mainly Europe. Arab’s were conquering the world, starting from Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Persia while India was struggling with the unstable kingdom of Hindu’s. Harshvardan was the last Hindu emperor and his death brought political instability in India.
The Lohara Dynasty (1003-1171 AD) came after Utpala Dynasty in the region of Kashmir. After the suicide of Utpala, Paravgupta (950-958 AD), the scheming clerk, he was designated the title of king for a year. He was succeeded by his son Kshemagupta, a lecherous person who married princess Didda of Lohara.
Kashmir has a distinct history from the other states of India. Art work, unique temples and monuments were the main attractions. The Kashmir region also grew economically despite of harsh weather conditions. The famous tales of Panchtantra were written in 14th century. The Sanskrit language reached to a greater height. The people became highly qualified. This is the golden era in the Kashmir valley.
When the Karkota Dynasty was on the verge of collapsing as it was both politically and economically weak, it gave the way to Utpala Dynasty to rise up. In the time of later Karkotas, the kingdom had suffered greatly from political and economical troubles. All the efforts were exhausted in making kingdom strong and united. Later on the situation was controlled. Brahmans were granted special benefits and new temples were constructed. Soon the dynasty came to an end in 939AD after the death of Gopalavarman.
The history of Kashmir begins with the Karkota Dynasty. Before that the valley of Kashmir was ruled by Ashoka the Great, the Mauryan Empire. The strongest ruler of the dynasty was Lalitaditya. Some of the main conquests he made were up to Bengal that made Kashmir the most powerful kingdom after the time of The Guptas. The Martand temple in the Anantnag district of today’s Kashmir preserves the memory of King Lalitaditya.
Modern Bundelkhand was known as Jejakabhukti during 10th and 11th century and was ruled by Chandellas. These Rajput emperors were fond of art and culture and the temples of Khajrao (Madhya Pradesh) were built during this time. Chandellas had maternal relations with Kalachuris. Kalinjar, Mahotsavanagar and Khajrao were the important cities of this dynasty. The fields of art and architecture flourished during the rule of Chandellas. The Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage site by UNESCO.
The Kalachuri dynasty consists of two kingdoms, one ruling over the Central India (Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Malwa, and Maharashtra) called “Chedi”, and the other Haihaya ruled over Southern India (Karnataka).The time period was from 10-12th century. The Kalachuri’s were ancient people from epics and Puranas. The Kalachuri’s of Chedi are also known as Kings of Dahalas, capital of Tripura, 6 kilometres away from Jubbulpore (modern Jabalpur).
Rajput’s are regarded as the brave and courageous fighters in the history of India. The Rajputs are known for their pride, at that time they were strong enough to think of themselves as self-sufficient rulers. The Chauhan dynasty ruled Shakambari region in 11th century, it was a politically strong dynasty known for its policies. The great Rajputs were the kings of Chauhan dynasty known for their bravery and loyalty. It originally belonged to Agnivanshi Clan (descendants of the Fire God).
The Gahadavals of Kannauj ruled North India in the mid of 11th century till the mid of 13th century AD. The origin of this family is Banaras (Varanasi) and Oudh (Ayodhaya) in Utter Pradesh. The Gahadaval kingdom expanded till Delhi and moved eastward to Patna and Munjar areas of Bihar. During the time of Govinchandra, this dynasty reached the summit of its power. The weakness of this ruling was exposed late in the 12th century AD during the invasions of Muhammad of Ghur.
The Sena Empire, a Hindu dynasty, ruled from Bengal from the 11th to 12th centuries. The Sena rulers merged the caste framework in Bengal. Albeit Bengal acquired from the standing arrangement of Mithila, position was not all that solid in Bengal as in Mithila. The Sena administration is acclaimed for building Hindu temples and religious communities, which incorporate the prestigious Dhakeshwari Temple in what is presently Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Kashmir, the line additionally likely fabricated a temple, which is credited to a Gaureshwara or Ballala Sena.
During 730 AD, Yashovarman set up a kingdom at Kannauj. His invasion of Gauda (Bengal) formed the context of the Prakrit poem Gaudavaho (Slaying of the ruler of Gauda), made by his courtier Vakapatiraja in the eighth century. After Yashovarman, three rulers, Vijrayudha, Indrayudha and Chakrayudha, ruled over Kannauj between close of the eighth century till the 820AD. Towards the successor's end of Nagabhata II, effectively assaulted Kannauj and set up control there.
The Pala Empire was a Buddhist supreme power in ancient India. The kingdom was focused around present-day Bangladesh and eastern India. The Palas had introduced a time of soundness and thriving in the Bengal-Bihar region. They were the supporters of the Mahayana and Vajrayana schools of Buddhism. They made numerous extraordinary temples and works of art, which also included the Somapura Mahavihara. The prestigious universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila prospered under their support.
The origin of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty has been a disputable subject and has been debated over the previous decades by historians. The varying views basically revolve around issues, for example, the home of the most punctual precursors of the medieval Rashtrakutas and the relationship between the few Rashtrakuta lines that ruled little kingdoms in Northern and focal India and the Deccan in the sixth century - seventh century.
‘Rajput’ is derived from Sanskrit word ‘raj-putra’ which means “son of a king”. Rajput was identified for their courage, loyalty and royalty. They were the warriors who fought in the battles and took care of the administrating functions. The Rajput originated from western, eastern, northern India and some parts of Pakistan. Rajput has their prominence during the 6th to 12th centuries. Until 20th century Rajput ruled in trounce majority in the princely states of Rajasthan and Surashtra.
In 1179 A.D. the Indian history witnessed the accession of the youngest king of Rajputana clan. Prithvi Raj Chauhan was born in the royal family of the King of Ajmer, Raja Someshwar Chauhan, and Maharani Karpuri Devi in 1168 AD. At the sudden demise of his father on the battlefield, it was his courage and strength that made his grand father Angam declared him the king of Ajmer. Prithviraj Chauhan was the last ruler of the Chauhan Dynasty in India.