The ecologists and bio-geographers divided six major plant kingdoms in the world on the basis of floral characteristics i.e. Australian Kingdom; Cape Kingdom (South Africa); Antarctic Kingdom; Palaeo-tropical Kingdom; Neo-tropical Kingdom; Boreal Kingdom. Here, we are giving the 10 GK Questions on Plants and Animal Kingdoms in the form of multiple choice questions which strengthen the knowledge of aspirants who are preparing for the examinations like UPSC, State Services, IBPS, SBI, SCC, Railways etc.
The Environment is our basic life support system which provides the air for breathing, the water for drinking, the food for eating and the land for a living. It is collectively portrayed all the external forces and conditions, which influences the life, nature, growth and maturity of living organism, whereas ‘Ecology’ is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
The term Biodiversity was coined by R.F Dasman in 1968 which refer to as the variety of and abundance of living organisms in a particular region. It has great social relevance. It is imperative to conserve biodiversity because we have not discovered any valuable use of species of plant , animals and micro-organisms, may be the coming generation learn to optimum as well as valuable of species.
The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO introduced the designation of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas in November, 1971. The National Biosphere Reserve Programme in India was initiated in 1986 to serve as wider base for conservation of entire range of living resources and their ecological foundations in addition to already established protected area network system.
Alien Species that threaten native plants and animals of other aspects of biodiversity are called alien invasive species. Here, we are giving the list of Invasive Alien Flora of India which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Agricultural Revolution or Agrarian Revolution refers to the significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that change production. Here, we are giving the list of India's Biosphere Reserves in UNESCO MAB list which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Sacred Groves comprises of patches of forest or natural vegetation- from a few trees to forests of several acres-that are usually dedicated to local folk deities. Here, we are giving the list of Sacred Groves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Mangroves are the tropical trees or shrubs bearing fruit that germinates while still on the tree and having numerous prop roots that eventually form an impenetrable mass and are important in land building. Here, we are giving the list of Mangrove Sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. There are 10 bio-geographical Zones in India. The bio-geographical province is an ecosystematic or biotic subdivision of realm. India is divided into 25 bio-geographic provinces. Here, we are giving the list of Bio-geographic Zones and Bio-geographic Provinces of which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Monitoring the Killing of Elephants acronyms as MIKE. The prime objectives of the MIKE are to measure levels and trends in the illegal poacher of elephants. So that Government build their institutional capacity within the range States for the long-term management of their elephant populations. Here, we are giving the list of Mike Sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Government of India had launched the project Elephant in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with objectives to protect elephants, their habitat & corridors; to address issues of man-animal conflict; and welfare of captive elephants. Here, we are giving the list of Elephant Reserves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India to ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance. Here, we are giving the list of Project Tiger Reserves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands. Here, we are giving the list of Ramsar wetland sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
There are colonies of trees which have lived for millions of years. These trees are the eyewitness of emergence and decline of civilisations. Here we are covering the top 10 oldest trees of the whole world. Lets have a look...
This comprehensive Study Material on “Environment & Ecology” is designed with the reference of basic text books like NCERT’s old and new (Geography from 6 to 12 and Biology from 9 to 12), ICSE books of class 10th and 11th) and some more books like Erach Bharucha’s (Environmental Studies for undergraduate courses), Majid Husain’s (Environment & Ecology), Mahesh Rangarajan’s (Environmental issues in India) etc.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) also known as the Indian antelope. The blackbuck is the sole extant member of the genus Antilope. It stands up to 74 to 84 cm in height. Males weigh 20–57 kilograms while females are lighter, weighing 20–33 kilograms on an average. It can run at the speed of 50 kms/hr. Its life span is 10 to 15 years. IUCN tagged the blackbuck as Near Threatened.
The IUCN Red List (founded in 1964) is the world’s most authentic source of information on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species and their links to livelihoods within the territory of the state or country. Far more than a list of species and their status, it is a powerful tool to inform and catalyse action for biodiversity conservation and policy change - critical to protecting the natural resources we need to survive.
India has added 15 more species to the “Red List” of threatened species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 2014. But the country has climbed down a spot to the seventh position. By the year-end, India had 988 threatened species on the list, which lists critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable species. In 2013, the number was 973. With 659 species in 2008, the increase over seven years is 50 per cent.
Ten species of birds seen in India have been tagged critically endangered by the International Union for Conversation of Nature (IUCN) for 2015. The list of endangered birds includes Great Siberian Crane, Indian Bustard, White backed Vulture and Red-headed Vulture, Forest Owlet, Spoon Billed Sandpiper,White Bellied Heron etc. The main reasons behind the decline in the population of these birds include loss, modification, fragmentation and degradation of habitat, environmental contaminants, poaching and land use changes.
The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), are also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane. Siberian crane are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population migrates in Iran, India and Nepal during winter. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations.
The snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia) is a large cat inhabitant of mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as endangered species in the IUCN Red List. The global population of these leopards was estimated at 4,080–6,590 adults in 2013, of which fewer than 2,500 individuals may reproduce in the wild. These leopards are able to jump as far as 50 feet (15 meters).
There are two types of Yak: domestic and wild. Domestic Yak are smaller, have a less shaggy coat, and probably originated from wild Tibetan Yak. Domestic Yaks are used for travel and as draft animals. Yaks are valuable for their milk, meat, wool, and dung. The wild Yak is threatened by loss of habitat and over hunting. Their current status is “vulnerable.” The male wild Yak can weigh up to 2200 pounds and is 6.5 feet high at the shoulder.
The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) are found in the forest canopy in the mountains of Nepal, India, Bhutan, China, Laos and Myanmar. As clear from their name, red pandas are red, and have white and black markings. Their legs and bellies are black. Their tails are ringed. They even have fur on the soles of their feet, which helps them stay warm in the high altitudes where they live. The name of the Firefox web browser is said to have been derived from a nickname of the red panda.
Blue whale is the largest animal on the planet. It can be found in all oceans of the world. They usually spend the summer in arctic water and migrate to southern (warmer) waters during winter time. Blue whales are very old creatures - they exist on the Earth 54 million years. Number of blue whales decreased drastically in the first half of the 20th century when whalers hunted them nearly to extinction. Today there are nearby 20000 whales are left.
In the decade of 1980s, the number of white-Rumped vultures was around 80 million in India. Today its number decreased to less than 60 thousand (2012).This is the fastest disappearance of any bird species in the world, including Dodo. As we know that vulture plays a prominent role in the sanitation work. The disappearance of vulture has resulted in the explosion of rats etc. This degradation cost around US $ 25 bn. up to 2015.
Whales belong to the order cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. Whales are divided into two suborders: baleen and toothed whales. Baleen whales have a comb-like fringe, called a baleen, on the upper jaw, which is used to filter plankton, as well as small fish and crustaceans. They are the largest species of whale. Toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, other whales and marine mammals. They sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.
Sariska Tiger Reserve is located in Alwar District of Rajasthan in lap of Aravali hills. Sariska Tiger Reserve or Sariska National Park was a hunting reserve area for Alwar state. It got a status of wildlife reserve in year 1955 and in year 1978 it became Sariska Tiger Reserve. It covers area of 866 sq kms. The Wild life 0f Sariska Park includes Royal Bengal Tiger, Leopard, Jungle Cat, Caracal, Striped Hyena, Golden Jackal, Chital, Sambhar, Blue Bull, Chinkara, Four Horned antelope.
Ranthambore National Park is in Sawai Madhopur District of Rajasthan. It is located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.The park covers an area of Approximately 400 sq Km and if combined it with the area of sawai man singh sanctuary area, it is around 500 Sq km. Ranthambore national park was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957 and in 1974 it gained the protection of "Project Tiger". It got the status of a National Park in 1981.
The Kanha National Park is situated in the Maikal range of Satpuras in Madhya Pradesh. The national park is being popularized as the Tiger reserve. It is spreading across two districts the Mandala and the Kalaghat. Kanha National Park was declared a reserve forest in 1879 and revalued as a wildlife sanctuary in 1933. Its position was further upgraded to a national park in 1955. The picturesque Kanha National Park was the inspiration behind Rudyard Kipling's unforgettable classic Jungle Book.
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand and was named after Jim Corbett who played a key role in its establishment. The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative. Area of the Jim Corbett Park is 520.82 sq km (1318 sq km Corbett National Park including Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary).