From the evolution of humankind to the age of exploration, cartography has been an integral part of the human history. The word cartography is a combination of two word ‘carta’ which means map and ‘graphy’ that is something written or represented in the specified manner, or about a specified subject. Hence, we can say it is an art, technique, or practice of compiling or drawing maps or charts. Read the complete chronology of map-drawing (Cartography) techniques from ancient world to modern world.
India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the north to Sun drenched coastal villages of the south and the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, from the fertile Brahmaputra valley on its east to the Thar Desert in the west. Here, we are giving ‘Summary on the Physiography of India’ as a quick revision capsule which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations.
The Geographical Structure of Bihar is embedded with younger geological structure in the North by Dharwarian rocks and older in the South by quaternary rocks. Here, we are giving brief outline of Geographical and Physiological Structure of Bihar which will be helpful for the aspirants as revision capsule to those who are preparing for the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state level examinations.
The Indus Water Treaty is the treaty between the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan for the optimum utilisation of the waters of the Indus system of rivers. It was signed under the arbitration of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now World Bank) in Karachi (Pakistan) on September 19, 1960.
Geography may be studied by way of several interrelated approaches, i.e., systematically, regionally, descriptively, and analytically. The important terms of Geography are classifiers tools for making sense of the world. These terms help us to plan geographically rigorous, engaging and challenging sequences of learning that will encourage careful and challenging thinking about a geographical topic. They are also the concepts central to a discipline that increasingly engages with the humanities as well as with the physical and social sciences.
A mountain pass locally is the highest point on the route through a mountain range or over the ridge. It played an important role in trade, war, and migration. It also known as notches, gaps, saddles, cols, hauses, bwlch (Welsh), bealach or brennig (Gaelic). Important passes are- Zoji La (Pass), Banihal Pass, Shipki La (Pass),Bara-Lacha Pass, Rohtang Pass, Mana Pass, Niti Pass, Nathu La (Pass),Jalep La (Pass) etc.
India is a land of natural beauty and islands in India forms a significant part with well-encompassed by lush forests and possess the infinite variety of striking fauna and flora. There are two major island groups in India – one in the Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. However, some smaller islands are volcanic in origin. Barren Island, the only active volcano in India is also situated in the Nicobar Islands.
The Eastern Coastal Plains extends between the Eastern Ghats and the sea coast from Subarnarekha River to Kanyakumari. It is wider than Western Coastal Plain because the rivers like Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri formed the delta over there. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours.
The Western Ghats Coastal Plain extends from Surat to Kanyakumari which is divided into four parts:The Gujarat Plain- Coastal area of Gujarat; The Konkan Plain- Between Daman and Goa;The Kannad Plain- Between Goa and Mangalore; The Malabar Plain- Between Mangalore and Kanyakumari.
The Eastern Ghats Mountain Ranges are extends from Orissa to Tamil Nadu. It is more eroded than the Western Ghats. It is drained by the Godavari and the Krishna River. Vishakhapatnam Peak is the highest peak of this range. Mahendragiri is the second highest peak of this range. It continues as the Javadi and Shevaroy hills in the south-west of Chennai, beyond which they merge with the Western Ghats.
The Western Ghat Mountain Range or Sahyadri Range is the India’s largest mountain range after the Himalayas which extend from the Tapi river valley to the Nilgiri. The range is called Sahyadri in northern Maharashtra and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala. This range is the home of many hill stations like Matheran,Lonavala-Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu.
The Indian Desert is located to the north-west of the Aravali hills lies the Great Indian Desert. This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm per year; hence, it has arid climate with low vegetation cover. It is because of these characteristic features that this is also known as Marusthali. The region was under the sea during the Mesozoic era which can be established or strengthen as with new evidence or facts by the available at wood fossils park at Aakal and marine deposits around Brahmsar, near Jaisalmer.
The Great Indian Plains is located between the Himalayas and the peninsular India. The rivers originating from the Himalayas (i.e. The Ganga; The Yamuna; The Indus, The Brahmaputra; The Kosi etc) and those rivers which are peninsular origin have added fertility in this region by depositing alluvial soil. On the basis of structural characteristics and slope, this region can be divided into four parts- Bhabar, the Tarai Region, Bangar, and Khadar.
The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These plains extend approximately 3,200 km from the east to the west. The average width of these plains varies between 150-300 km. The maximum depth of alluvium deposits varies between 1,000-2,000 m. From the north to the south, these can be divided into three major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai and the alluvial plains. The alluvial plains can be further divided into the Khadar and the Bhangar.
The Peninsular Plateau of India is roughly triangular in shape with its base parallel to the Ganga Valley and its apex pointing towards the southern tips of the country. It is hard old mass of igneous and metamorphic rocks being part of the tectonic plate called the Gondwanaland. This is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north.
The Aravalli Range is one of the most popular mountain ranges and the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest. The length of the Aravalis is about 1100 km which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni, Sakhi, and Sabarmati.
The Himalayas bend sharply to the south beyond the Dihang gorge and move outwards to form a covering the eastern boundary of the country. They are known as ‘the Eastern or Purvanchal Hills’. It extended in the north-eastern states of India. Most of these hills are extended along the border of India and Myanmar while others are inside India namely- the Patkai Bum Hills, the Naga Hills and the Mizo Hills.
The Trans-Himalayas Mountain Region or Tibet Himalayan Region is located to the north of the Great Himalayas which is consists of Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Kailash mountain ranges. It is also called the Tibet Himalayan Region because most of the part of these ranges lies in the Tibet. The Karakoram Range is known as the ‘backbone of high Asia’. K2 is the second highest peak in the world and highest in the Indian Territory.
The geology of India is very diverse because an Indian rock belongs to different geologic periods, dating as far back as the Eoarchean Era. Some of the rocks are very deformed and altered. Other deposits include recently deposited alluvium that has yet to undergo digenesis. Mineral deposits of great variety are found in the Indian subcontinent in huge quantity. Even India's fossil record is impressive in which stromatolites, invertebrates, vertebrates and plant fossils are included. India's geographical land area can be classified into Deccan trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan.
The history of Earth’s geological structure can be divided into five eras- Azoic (Non-living era), Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic and Neozoic era. The Azoic era is the era of the origin of the continental shelf. At that time the origin of the continental shelf (Pangaea) was formed by the silica rich granite rocks of less density. The oldest rocks of the Archaean period are found in the peninsular India which is a part of the oldest landmass Pangaea on one hand, while there is an abundance of the latest sedimentary rocks of the Quaternary epoch in its plains.
India lies largely on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent Physical divisions, are marked by natural configuration. India may be divided broadly into five physical units -The Great Mountains of the north; The north Indian plain; The Peninsular Plateau; The coastal plains; The Islands.
India is a union of States and Union Territories for the purposes of administration, India is divided into 29 States (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh) and 7 Union Territories. Delhi, the capital of India, is the largest metropolis in India.
India is located in South Asia. It is largest country in South Asia in area and population. There are seven neighbouring countries on the frontiers of India. 17 states of India have common land borders with neighbouring countries. Radcliffe Line-Border line between India and Pakistan, and India and Bangladesh. McMahon Line-Border line between India and China. Durand Line-Border line between India and Afghanistan but it short, hence presently Durand line is between Pak Occupied Kashmir (POK) and Afghanistan.
India is located latitudinally in the Northern Hemisphere and longitudinally in the Eastern Hemisphere. It extends from 80 4’ N to 370 6’ N latitude and 680 7’ E to 970 25’ E longitude. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland and the Islands is over 7,500 km. It occupies the south-central peninsula of Asia. Arabian Peninsula and African continent lie on the west and Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia in the east.
The Greek astronomers thought that the earth was at the centre of the universe and the moon, the planets, the sun and stars were orbiting around it. In the 6th century, it was Aryabhatta who stated that the rotation of the heavenly bodies is due to the rotation of the earth around its axis. In the 15th century, Nicholas Copernicus opines that the sun was at the centre of the solar system and planets revolve around it. In the 16th century, Johannes Kepler discovered the laws of planetary orbits.
Water is very important for life .It continuously changes its form through water cycle. The process by which water continually changes its form and circulates between oceans, atmosphere and land is known as the water cycle. The major sources of fresh water are the rivers, ponds, springs and glaciers. The ocean bodies and the seas contain salty water. The earth is covered by three-fourth of water. 97.3% water is saline or salty in ocean and seas, 3% is fresh water that consisting ice-cape, ground water, fresh water lakes, inland and salt lakes.
The atmosphere is a huge blanket of air that surrounds the earth. It provides us the air we breathe and protects us from the harmful effects of the sun’s rays. Atmosphere is consists of mainly nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.93%), carbon dioxide (0.03%) and other gases like helium, ozone, argon and hydrogen (0.04%).
When the lithosphere is broken into a number of plates is called the Lithospheric plates. The plates are moving because they are floating on the molten magma inside the earth. The movement of lithospheric plates causes changes on the surface of the earth. There are two types of the earth movements which are divided on the basis of the forces- endogenous forces and exogenous forces. These movements like volcano and earth quakes cause mass destruction over the surface of the earth.
The earth is a dynamic planet because it is constantly undergoing changes inside and outside. The earth is made up of several concentric layers with one inside another. There are three types of layer- crust, mantle and core. Crust is the uppermost layer over the earth’s surface which is about 35 km on the continental masses and only 5 km on the ocean floors. Mantle is just beneath the crust which is extends up to a depth of 2900 km. below the crust .The innermost layer is the core with a radius of about 3500 km.
The Earth is an Oblate Spheroid. Therefore it is difficult to locate places on it unless a mathematical system is used. There are two reference points on the Earth- the North Pole and South Pole. The horizontal lines are the lines of latitudes and the vertical ones are the lines of longitudes. These lines intersect each other at right angles and create a network called a grid or graticule. The graticule helps us to locate places on the surface of the Earth accurately.