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Livestock Resources

India is on first rank on the livestock resources followed by United States of America. The total livestock in India are- 14% Cows and Oxen, and 57 % buffaloes of the world. However, buffaloes contribute 53 % in total country’s milk production. Number of Cows and Oxen (Decreasing Order) - Madhya Pradesh > West Bengal > Uttar Pradesh > Maharashtra. Number of buffaloes (Decreasing Order) - Uttar Pradesh > Andhra Pradesh > Rajasthan > Madhya Pradesh. 29.7 % of the total agricultural production in the country shared by the animal husbandry and pisciculture.

Rural Settlement

The rural settlements are concerned with the degree of dispersion of the dwellings and the life is supported by land based primary economic activities. Rural people are less mobile and therefore, social relations among them are intimate. In India, the rural settlement varies with the diversity of climatic condition in India that is compact or clustered village of a few hundred houses is a rather universal feature, particularly in the northern plains.

Minerals Resources

Minerals are formed over a period of millions of years in the earth’s crust. They are derived from rocks, which form the earth’s crust. They are of different kinds, for example, salt, coal, petroleum, quartz, bauxite, iron, copper, gold and diamond. They are broadly grouped as metallic and non-metallic. Mineral ores containing metal are known as metallic minerals. The remaining minerals are called non-metallic.

Marine Resources

Marine Resources ecosystems play role in supporting economic prosperity and social welfare in developing countries. They sustain the livelihoods of millions of poor households; provide multiple ecosystem services that are essential for life, yield vast amounts of food, and play a critical role in driving weather and climate. India is rich in marine resources. It can be divided in two parts: Abiotic and Biotic resources.

Human Settlement

Human Settlement is a form of human habitation which ranges from a single dowelling to large city. In other words, it is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people. People live in clusters of houses that might be a village, a town or a city. The study of human settlements is basic to human geography because the form of settlement in any particular region reflects human relationship with the environment.

Human Development

Development is the combination of qualitative and quantitative process of growing or causing something to grow or become larger or more advanced. The term ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not new but refer to changes over a period of time. The growth is quantitative and value neutral which means it may have a positive or a negative that the change may be either positive (showing an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease) whereas development means a qualitative change which is always value positive.

Human Resources

Human resources are often referred to the population. The population density means the number of people per sq. Km is called the pattern of population distribution. The environmental factors such as high altitude, extreme cold, aridity, relief, climate, soil, vegetation types, mineral, energy resources and technological and economic advancements influences the population distribution, this is the only reason hills, mountains and deserts have less number of people per sq. km.

Peninsular River Flowing Towards the West

Peninsular River flowing towards the west has short courses and most of these rivers are originates on Western Ghats.  The important peninsular rivers flowing towards the west are Shetrunji, Bhadra (Bhadar), Vaitarna, Kalindi, Bedti, Sharavati, Bharsthpuzha, Periyar and Pamba. These rivers cover in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala and hence they are only drainage system other than rainwater for their agricultural activities.

Peninsular River Flowing towards the East

Peninsular Rivers is much older than Himalayan Rivers. There are a large number of rivers flowing towards the east along with their tributaries. There are small rivers which join the Bay of Bengal, though small, these are important in their own right. The Subarnrekha, the Baitarni, the Brahmani, the Vamsadhara, the Penner, the Palar and the Vaigai are important rivers.

The Peninsular River System

The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one. This is evident from the broad, largely-graded shallow valleys, and the maturity of the rivers. The Western Ghats running close to the western coast act as the water divide between the major Peninsular Rivers, discharging their water in the Bay of Bengal and as small rivulets joining the Arabian Sea. Most of the major Peninsular Rivers except Narmada and Tapi flow from west to east.

The Brahmaputra River System

The Brahmaputra is one of the largest river basins in the world that has its origin in the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake. It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh. Its major left bank tributaries are the Burhi Dihing, Dhansari (South) and Kalang whereas the important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas and Sankosh.

The Ganga River System

The Ganga is the most important river of India both from the point of view of its basin and cultural significance. It rises from the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttaranchal. Here, it is known as the Bhagirathi. The important tributaries of Ganga are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi and the Mahanada. The river finally discharges itself into the Bay of Bengal near the Sagar Island.

The Indus System

The Indus System is one of the largest river basins of the world. It is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu (31°15' N latitude and 81°40' E longitude) in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range. It receives a number of Himalayan tributaries such as the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar, the Gasting and the Dras.

Drainage System

Indian drainage system consists of a large number of small and big rivers. It is the outcome of the evolutionary process of the three major physiographic units and the nature and characteristics of precipitation. The Himalayan drainage system includes the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins. The peninsular plateau is drained by Narmada, Tapi, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri.

Drainage pattern

A Drainage pattern can be defined in the shadow of topographical features from which a stream get runoff, through flow, and groundwater flow which can be divided by topographic barriers called a watershed. A watershed can be defined as all of the stream tributaries that flow to some location along the stream channel.

Basic Concepts in Geography

Geography may be studied by way of several interrelated approaches, i.e., systematically, regionally, descriptively, and analytically. The important terms of Geography are classifiers tools for making sense of the world. These terms helps us to plan geographically rigorous, engaging and challenging sequences of learning that will encourage careful and challenging thinking about a geographical topic. They are also the concepts central to a discipline that increasingly engages with the humanities as well as with the physical and social sciences.

Important Passes in India

A mountain pass locally is the highest point on the route through a mountain range or over the ridge. It played an important role in trade, war, and migration. It also known as notches, gaps, saddles, cols, hauses, bwlch (Welsh), bealach or brennig (Gaelic). Important passes are- Zoji La (Pass), Banihal Pass, Shipki La (Pass),Bara-Lacha Pass, Rohtang Pass, Mana Pass, Niti Pass, Nathu La (Pass),Jalep La (Pass) etc.

The Island Groups

India is a land of natural beauty and islands in India forms a significant part with well-encompassed by lush forests and possess the infinite variety of striking fauna and flora.  There are two major island groups in India – one in the Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. However, some smaller islands are volcanic in origin. Barren Island, the only active volcano in India is also situated in the Nicobar Islands.

The Eastern Coastal Plains

The Eastern Coastal Plains extends between the Eastern Ghats and the sea coast from Subarnarekha River to Kanyakumari. It is wider than Western Coastal Plain because the rivers like Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri formed the delta over there. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours.

The Western Ghats Coastal Plain

The Western Ghats Coastal Plain extends from Surat to Kanyakumari which is divided into four parts:The Gujarat Plain- Coastal area of Gujarat; The Konkan Plain- Between Daman and Goa;The Kannad Plain- Between Goa and Mangalore; The Malabar Plain- Between Mangalore and Kanyakumari.

The Eastern Ghats Mountain Range

The Eastern Ghats Mountain Ranges are extends from Orissa to Tamil Nadu. It is more eroded than the Western Ghats. It is drained by the Godavari and the Krishna River. Vishakhapatnam Peak is the highest peak of this range. Mahendragiri is the second highest peak of this range. It continues as the Javadi and Shevaroy hills in the south-west of Chennai, beyond which they merge with the Western Ghats.

The Western Ghats Mountain Range

The Western Ghat Mountain Range or Sahyadri Range is the India’s largest mountain range after the Himalayas which extend from the Tapi river valley to the Nilgiri. The range is called Sahyadri in northern Maharashtra and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala. This range is the home of many hill stations like Matheran,Lonavala-Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu.

Indian Desert

The Indian Desert is located to the north-west of the Aravali hills lies the Great Indian Desert. This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm per year; hence, it has arid climate with low vegetation cover. It is because of these characteristic features that this is also known as Marusthali. The region was under the sea during the Mesozoic era which can be established or strengthen as with new evidence or facts by the available at wood fossils park at Aakal and marine deposits around Brahmsar, near Jaisalmer.

Structural division of Plains

The Great Indian Plains is located between the Himalayas and the peninsular India. The rivers originating from the Himalayas (i.e. The Ganga; The Yamuna; The Indus, The Brahmaputra; The Kosi etc) and those rivers which are peninsular origin have added fertility in this region by depositing alluvial soil. On the basis of structural characteristics   and slope, this region can be divided into four parts- Bhabar, the Tarai Region, Bangar, and Khadar.

The Great Plains of India

The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These plains extend approximately 3,200 km from the east to the west. The average width of these plains varies between 150-300 km. The maximum depth of alluvium deposits varies between 1,000-2,000 m. From the north to the south, these can be divided into three major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai and the alluvial plains. The alluvial plains can be further divided into the Khadar and the Bhangar.

The Peninsular Plateau

The Peninsular Plateau of India is roughly triangular in shape with its base parallel to the Ganga Valley and its apex pointing towards the southern tips of the country. It is hard old mass of igneous and metamorphic rocks being part of the tectonic plate called the Gondwanaland. This is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north.

The Aravali Mountain Range

The Aravalli Range is one of the most popular mountain ranges and the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest. The length of the Aravalis is about 1100 km which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni, Sakhi, and Sabarmati.

The Eastern or Purvanchal Hills

The Himalayas bend sharply to the south beyond the Dihang gorge and move outwards to form a covering the eastern boundary of the country. They are known as ‘the Eastern or Purvanchal Hills’. It extended in the north-eastern states of India. Most of these hills are extended along the border of India and Myanmar while others are inside India namely- the Patkai Bum Hills, the Naga Hills and the Mizo Hills.

Trans-Himalayas Mountain Region or Tibet Himalayan Region

The Trans-Himalayas Mountain Region or Tibet Himalayan Region is located to the north of the Great Himalayas which is consists of Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Kailash mountain ranges. It is also called the Tibet Himalayan Region because most of the part of these ranges lies in the Tibet. The Karakoram Range is known as the ‘backbone of high Asia’. K2 is the second highest peak in the world and highest in the Indian Territory.

Classification of the Indian Rocks

The geology of India is very diverse because an Indian rock belongs to different geologic periods, dating as far back as the Eoarchean Era. Some of the rocks are very deformed and altered. Other deposits include recently deposited alluvium that has yet to undergo digenesis. Mineral deposits of great variety are found in the Indian subcontinent in huge quantity. Even India's fossil record is impressive in which stromatolites, invertebrates, vertebrates and plant fossils are included. India's geographical land area can be classified into Deccan trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan.

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