The Vijaynagar Empire was founded by Harihara and Bukka in AD 1336 and made Hastinavati (Hampi) as the capital city. They ruled over Andhra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and parts of Kerala in southern India. Here, we are giving the gist of the cultural history of Vijaynagar Empire that will refine the knowledge about how architecture, art, music and literature developed under this kingdom.
The Janapadas and Mahajanapadas represent the state system of 600BC. The processes of emergence of Mahajanpadas were initiated by certain important economic changes and the consequent socio-political developments witnessed during the period. Here, we are giving the list of Ancient Janapadas and Mahajanapadas for better understanding of the ancient ruling style and monarchical condition.
The Tughlaqs were a Muslim family of Turkic origin. The dynasty reached its zenith point between AD 1330 and 1335 when Muhammad Bin Tughlaq led military campaign. Its rule was marked by torture, cruelty and rebellions, resulting in the rapid disintegration of the dynasty's territorial reach after 1335 AD. Here, we are giving a complete overview on the Delhi Sultanate under Tughlaq Dynasty, which can be used by aspirants of any competitive exams.
The establishment of Delhi Sultanate began with the invasion of Muhammad Ghori. He had brought a large number of slaves and appointment them as officers. When he died in AD 1206 resulted in a scramble for supremacy among his three generals- Qutub-ud-din Aibek (Commander of his army), Tajuddin Yalduz (ruled Karman and Sankuran between Afghanistan and Sind) and Nasiruddin Qubacha (held). Here, we are giving a timeline of Delhi Sultanate in chronological order and causes of decline of Delhi Sultanate.
India is the land World's first urban civilization and it witnessing the fusion of several customs and traditions, which are reflective of the rich culture and heritage of the Country. There are a lot of significant contributions that India has made to the world in the field of art, science, mathematics and so on. Here, we are giving 10 amazing Ancient Discoveries and Inventions that has changed the Modern World.
The Khiljis served under the Ilbari dynasty of Delhi. Malik Firuz was the founder of the Khilji Dynasty who was originally the Ariz-I-Mumalik appointed by Kaiqubad during the days of the decline of the Ilbari Dynasty. He took advantage of the political vacuum and ascended the throne of Delhi as Jalal-ud-din Firuz Khilji.
The Lodhi Dynasty under the Delhi Sultanate was the first Afghan Pashtun Dynasty in India who ruled from AD 1451 to 1526.This dynasty replaced the Sayyid Dynasty and it was a period of reforms in administration, strengthening the army, gearing up the machinery of land revenue administration, expansion and improvement of the cultivation and welfare of the people. Here, we are giving a complete overview on the Lodhi Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.
The Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan, who was the governor of Multan and Timur's deputy in India. This dynasty ruled for 37 years from 1414 to 1451 AD by four rulers- Khizr Khan, Mubarak, Muhammad Shah, Alam Shah. Here, we are giving a complete detailed summary on the Sayyid Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.
The architecture of the Sultanate Period manifested the aesthetic heritage of new sultans which include both religious and secular structures i.e. Indo-Islamic architecture. For Example- The dome is the prominent feature of the mosque in contrast to the Sikhar of Hindu temples. Here, we are giving an account of the architectural landmarks of the Sultanate period in which we have covered the name of builder, location and the characteristics of architecture.
The Sultans of Delhi Sultanate were a perfect autocrat and their real source of authority was military strength. They were commander of forces, chief lawgiver and the final of the court of appeal. Here, we are giving a complete summary of the Military reforms under the Delhi Sultanate for the aspirants of different competitive exams.
The Ilbary Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate was the first Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate and the various historians designated as the Slave Dynasty or the Mameluq Dynasty or the Ilbari Dynasty. Here, we are giving a complete Summary on the Ilbary Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate which can be used as revision capsule by the aspirants of different competitive examinations.
Mauryan rule marks an important phase in our cultural history. Mainly in the period of Ashoka, the art and architecture was at its zenith and fall within the category of court art. Ashoka embraced Buddhism and the immense Buddhist missionary activities that followed encouraged the development of distinct sculptural and architectural styles. Let us find out various art and architecture of Mauryan period which had connected to the lives, activities and patronage of ordinary people.
The Sultanate period was militaristic and aristocratic, and moreover the real source of the sultan’s authority was military strength. The rulers of Delhi Sultanate knew the importance of agriculture and open to promote through technological assistance because food grain was the most important item of internal trade while they exported slaves, indigo, opium, spices and cotton goods. Here, we are giving the list of Administrative and Agrarian Terms used in Sultanate Period, which is very useful study material for the academic purposes as well as for those who are preparing for the competitive exams.
Art and architecture which was a combination of Arabic and Indian styles that took a new direction in the Delhi Sultanate period. It witnesses the evolution and development of Indo-Islamic Architecture by synthesising geometrical shapes, calligraphy, inscriptional art etc. This Indo-Islamic architecture manifested the aesthetic heritage of the new sultans that includes both religious and secular structures.
Human history is full of experiments and talents that represent their dynamism and how they are keen to change. This is just an art of collection that makes a piece of metal valuable than its real value.The value of these coins depends on the rarity of the pieces, their historical significance, and Minting errors. Here, we are giving 10 rarest and most valuable coins in human history, which will help to understand the history and art of collecting coins.
Mahmud was the son of Subuktigin and his policy of conquest brought him in India just like his father who had extended his kingdom beyond the Indus after a reign of 20 years. He was a brilliant general and a mighty conqueror. He led as many as 17 expeditions into India during the years 1000-1206. Out of these the one against the temple of Somnath in 1025 AD was the most important as it gave Mahmud a vast treasure.
The emergence of the Chola power from obscurity, its rise to an important position and its conflicts, first with the Rashtrakutas from beyond the Tungabhadra and later with their successor, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, form the dominant features of the history of South India in the period 850 AD- 1200 AD. Here, we are giving the brief outline of the places which are associated with the Chola Administration.
The PNS Ghazi was the naval submarine, which was used in the naval battle of India-Pakistan Naval War of 1971 during the Bangladesh liberation war and hence popularly known as "Ghazi Attack". It was deployed in East-Pakistan ashore (which is now in Bangladesh east coast) to locate INS Vikrant and to destroy the Indian Eastern Command base of Visakhapatnam.
The symbolic gestures (Mudras) through iconography of Buddha image to evoke particular ideas during Buddhist meditation or rituals. In Indian sculptural art, images are the symbolic representations of divinity whose origin and end is expressed through the religious and spiritual beliefs.
The emergence of Rajputs was the outcomes of the death of Harshavardhana and the breakup of Pratihara Empire. They dominated the Indian political scene nearly 500 years from the 7th century. They belong to the patrilineal clans of the Indian subcontinent. They rule over Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar as warriors, entrepreneurs, and zamindar (land owners).
A complete list of ‘First in the World’ which is composed of all those human exploration and adventures, expeditions, discoveries and inventions which were made first time by any human being. It will help the aspirants to enhance their general knowledge for Competitive Exam (like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.), Bank Exam and Entrance Exam".
Currently India has 29 states and 7 union territories. Each state & UTs have their own language, clothing, cuisine and look. India is tagged as the mother of so many inventions like algebra, number zero, shampoo, chess, value of pi and diamond mining. India has nearly 90,000 types of animals including over 350 mammals, 1,200 bird species and 50,000 plant species.
Medieval History of Bihar is commemorated with the foreign invasion and dynasty that ruined the glory Bihar. Bihar was ruled directly or indirectly by Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Noohani Dynasty, Cher Dynasty, Bhojpur’s Ujjaini Dynasty, Sur Dynasty and Mughal Dynasty.
Tax is a mandatory liability for every citizen of the country. There are two types of tax in india i.e. direct and indirect. Taxation in India is rooted from the period of Manu Smriti and Arthasastra. Present Indian tax system is based on this ancient tax system which was based on the theory of maximum social welfare.
Bihar is a land of many extraordinary people whose work and contributions have strongly influenced the course of events of the history of Bihar. Nationalist, writers, poets, artists, musicians, theatre artist, all have their fair share of contribution to the land. Here, we are briefly outline the major contribution of some great personalities which will help the aspirants who are preparing for the State PSC Examinations like BPSC.
The Ancient History of Bihar extends to the very dawn of human civilization and also associated with the advent of earliest myths and legends of Sanatana Dharma. Here, we are giving the complete study material of ‘Ancient Bihar History’ that will be ease the journey of aspirants to crack the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state level examinations.
Buddhism was atheistic in nature and accompanied by cosmic rise and fall. It never questioned on the existence of God but they believe that there is nothing like supernatural of different form man except in their greater happiness and power. Here, we are sharing summary of Buddhism that will help the aspirant to learn- what is Buddhism, teaching of Buddha, how it spread and its contribution on the Indian culture.
Jainism made tremendous impact on the orthodox religious practices through heterodox sects. It advocated the interests of the people in a simple, short and intelligible way of salvation. Here, we are sharing the summary on Jainism along with the teaching of Mahavira and how it spread that will be very useful study material for the students who are preparing for the competitive examinations like UPSC, SSC, State Services, CDS, NDA and Railways.
Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, the Brahamanas, the Aranyakas, Upanishads and Vedangas are most important sources of knowledge about Aryans and Vedic period. Here, we are giving the “Summary of the Vedic Age: Polity | Society | Position of Women” which is very useful for the aspirants who are preparing for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
Sangam Age was started from 3rd century to 4th century BC and it is called Sangam because age was referred to the Sangam academies of poets and scholars. Here, we are sharing the summary on the Dynasties of Sangam Age which very useful study material for the students who are preparing for the competitive examinations like UPSC, SSC, State Services, CDS, NDA and Railways.