Human Settlement is a form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. In other words, it is a process of opening up and settling on a previously uninhabited area by the people. Here, we are giving ‘Summary on the Settlements and Urbanization in India’ which is very useful as GK study material for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The movement of people from region to region for the purpose of permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary is called Migration. For example: "semi-permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm labourers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Birth and death is another reason for the population size changes. It may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and resources.
Population Policies formulated to address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care. The main objective is to achieve a stable population at a level consistent with the requirements of sustainable economic growth, social development, and environmental protection. Several policies have been formulated in different Five-Year Plans by the Government of India for population control.
As per Census- 2011, the number of scheduled castes in India is 20, 13, and 78,086. It is 16.6% of the total population of India. The scheduled castes are 18.5% of the total population of rural areas and 12.6% of urban areas. It is to be noted that during 2001-2011 the decadal growth rate of the population of India was 17.64%. During this period decadal growth rate of the scheduled castes was 20.8%.
The present population of the Indian subcontinent has been divided into four racial groups- the Negritos, the Proto-Australoids, the Proto-Australoids, the Mongoloids, and the Mediterraneans. The Negritos were the first of the racial groups that came to India. Proto-Australoid race came here just after the Negritos and their sources are Australian aborigines. The Mongoloids came to India through the passes of northern and eastern mountain ranges. The Mediterraneans came to India from the south-west Asia.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistics of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by economist Mahbub-ul-Haq, followed by economist Amartya Sen in 1990, and published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Country rankings and values of the annual Human Development Index (HDI) are kept under strict embargo until the global launch and worldwide electronic release of the Human Development Report.
Development is very complex concepts of Social Sciences because it is a substantive concept and once it is achieved it will address all the socio-cultural and environmental ills of the society. Although, it has brought in significant improvement in the quality of life in more than one way but increasing regional disparities, social inequalities, discriminations, deprivations, displacement of people, abuse of human rights and undermining human values and environmental degradation have also increased.
The structure and functions of any region varies in terms of function, history of development as well as age of the town. Some towns and cities specialise in certain functions and they are known for some specific activities, products or services. However, each town performs a number of functions. On the basis of functions, Indian cities and towns can be broadly into - Administrative towns and cities, Industrial towns, Transport Cities, Commercial towns, Mining towns, Garrison Cantonment towns, Educational towns, Religious and cultural towns, and Tourist towns.
The term urban contemplate “engines of inclusive economic growth”. With the massive support from Industrialisation, the number of urban centres started growing day by day. Enlargement of urban centres and emergence of new towns have played a significant role in the growth of urban population and urbanisation in the country.
Urban settlements are generally compact and larger in size and engaged in a variety of non-agricultural, economic and administrative functions. As mentioned earlier, cities are functionally linked to rural areas around them. Thus, exchange of goods and services is performed sometimes directly and sometimes through a series of market towns and cities. Thus, cities are connected directly as well as indirectly with the villages and also with each other.
The distribution within a group of people of specified individual attributes such as sex, age, marital status, education, occupation, and relationship to the head of household is called Population composition. Population is divided into two parts-rural and urban on the basis of the size and occupation of settlements. The rural population consists of small sized settlements scattered over the countryside. Urban population is one that lives in large size settlements i.e. towns and cities.
Development moving on an uneven path because State have a very high GDP that might be derived from the exploitation of rich oil reserves but their segments of the population live in poverty and lack access to basic education, health and decent housing. The UNDP has given indicators on that basis the Planning Commission of India prepared the Human Development Report for India. Later, each state government prepared the state level Human Development Reports, using districts as the units of analysis.
The rural settlements are concerned with the degree of dispersion of the dwellings and the life is supported by land based primary economic activities. Rural people are less mobile and therefore, social relations among them are intimate. In India, the rural settlement varies with the diversity of climatic condition in India that is compact or clustered village of a few hundred houses is a rather universal feature, particularly in the northern plains.
Human Settlement is a form of human habitation which ranges from a single dowelling to large city. In other words, it is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people. People live in clusters of houses that might be a village, a town or a city. The study of human settlements is basic to human geography because the form of settlement in any particular region reflects human relationship with the environment.
Development is the combination of qualitative and quantitative process of growing or causing something to grow or become larger or more advanced. The term ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not new but refer to changes over a period of time. The growth is quantitative and value neutral which means it may have a positive or a negative that the change may be either positive (showing an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease) whereas development means a qualitative change which is always value positive.
Human resources are often referred to the population. The population density means the number of people per sq. Km is called the pattern of population distribution. The environmental factors such as high altitude, extreme cold, aridity, relief, climate, soil, vegetation types, mineral, energy resources and technological and economic advancements influences the population distribution, this is the only reason hills, mountains and deserts have less number of people per sq. km.