The origin of the word “Rupee” is from Sanskrit word Rupya which means shaped, stamped, impressed, coin and also from the Sanskrit word “raupya” which means silver. There was a long history of struggle, exploration and wealth which can be traced back to the ancient India of the 6th Century BC regarding rupee. The Paper Currency Act of 1861 gave the Government the monopoly of note issued throughout the vast expanse of British India.
7 Race Course Road or 7 RCR is the official residence and principal workplace of the Prime Minister of India, where he lives and holds most of his official or political meetings. It is situated on 7 RCR, New Delhi and the official name of the PM’s residence complex is Panchavati (it was also the forest name of Lord Rama). The entire RCR is also named as Delhi Race Course, which is now closed to the public. Rajiv Gandhi was the first PM to stay at Race Course Road in 1984 and now it is the present residence of Narendra Modi since 26th May 2014.
This comprehensive Study Material “Indian Geography” is designed with the reference of NCERT books and some more books like Majid Hussain (Geography of India), Savinder Singh (Physical Geography), D.R Khullar (India: A Comprehensive Geography), Mahesh Barnwal (Geography: A Comprehensive Study) etc.
Swastika is a sacred symbol in Hinduism, Buddhism & Jainism and a symbol of ancient religion which is in the form of equilateral cross having four legs bent at 90 degrees. The name Swastika is derived from the Sanskrit word swastika which means “lucky or auspicious object”.
The Indian Census is the most credible source of information on Demography (Population characterstics), Economic Activity, Literacy and Education, Housing & Household Amenities, Urbanisation, Fertility and Mortality etc. Census 2011 was the 15th National Census of the Country. This census was conducted under the guidance of Registrar General and Census Commissioners, India Mr. C. Chandramouli.
The British came to India as trader but disintegration made them ruler and they introduces far-reaching changes into administrative, legal, social and religious arena. The foreign character of the British rule hurt the pride of locals which made revolutionary to expel the alien rule out of their homelands. Here is the list of Non tribal, Tribal and Peasant Movements during British India that will helps the aspirants in the preparations of examinations like UPSC, SSC, State Services, CDS, NDA, Railways etc.
British adopt a dual policy in the sphere of education which discouraged the prevalent system of oriental education and gave importance to western education and English language. Here is the “List of Various Educational Committees during British India” that helps students to prepare examinations like UPSC, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
India has been made by contribution of several leaders from the ages. These leaders contributed in various spheres of life which have been of great importance to the Indian Society. Here is the “List of Important personalities and their contribution in Indian Society”.
After 1857 revolt, on August 1858, the British parliament passed an act that set an end to the rule of the company. The control of the British government in India was transferred to the British Crown; Lord Canning was made the first Viceroy of India. Here is a “List of British Viceroys during British India”, so that aspirant can easily learn the chronology as well as their contribution.
The British Governors Generals were originally the head of the British administration in India. The office was created in 1773 with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. Here is a “List of British Governors Generals during British Period in India”.
The day of International Yoga came into existence when the Honourable Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi call for adopting June 21st as the day of celebration while addressing UN General Assembly on September 27, 2014
Here is the list of Abbreviated or Alternative name of Personalities of Modern Indian History whose contribution personified the Indian History. These personalities had great contribution to the freedom struggle of India which is priceless and the country owes its independence, partly, to these great personalities.
After establishing the complete control over Indian territories, British taking firm steps to encourage trade, they found that the country is best suited not only for rule but also to intervene in its social system. In this regards, they took plethora of steps to ameliorate the social life of the people. Here, we are giving list of various reforms acts during British India.
As Percy Bysshe Shelley said that the 'History is a cyclic poem written by Time upon the memories of man’. Here, we are giving the List of an important Dates and Events of Modern history, in a chronological manner as well as important events that happened in Indian Modern History which is very useful for the aspirants of exams like UPSC-prelims, IAS-prelims, CPF, CDS, NDA and different State PSC exams.
Peshwas were the loyal ministers of Marathas state who were appointed to assist the king in different administrative as well as political affairs.
The “History of Medieval India” is a complete study material of remarkable civilisations, along with various kinds of intellectual and social evolutionary traits marking that era. So, it would not only help the students of 6th to 12th class or undergraduates but also those who are preparing for competitive exams.
The Complete Study Material of “History of Ancient India” is the comprehensive collections of important topics which are divided into 9 important sections that will be helpful in the preparation of all types of Competitive exams, those who are pursuing their degree courses and also for school going students.
This comprehensive Study Material “History of Modern India” is designed with the reference of NCERT books and some more books like India for Independence by Bipin Chandra, Sumit Sarkar etc. That will cater the requirements of not only the school going students but also for those who are pursuing their degree courses and even for those who are preparing for competitive exams.
Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) is situated at Patan in Gujarat state. It is located on the banks of the River Saraswati. It was built as a memorial to a king in the 11th century AD. Stepwells are considered as a water resource and storage systems on the Indian subcontinent. Rani-ki-Vav shows the ability of ‘ the craftsmens’ to build such an excellent stepwell. The well is located at the westernmost end of the property and consists of a shaft, 10 metres in diameter and 30 metres deep.
The hill forts of Rajasthan is a serial site, comprises six majestic forts of Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Sawai Madhopur, Jhalawar, Jaipur and Jaisalmer. The architecture of these forts is spread in the area of about twenty kms. These forts are boasting the legacy of Rajputana Empire of 8th to 18th centuries. These forts used the natural defenses provided by the landscape: deserts, rivers, hills, and dense forests. These forts have big water harvesting structures which are still in use.
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, and the Kalka–Shimla Railway collectively got the status of World Heritage Sites in 1999. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (West Bengal) was opened in 1881. The formation of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a 46-km long metre-gauge single railway track was completed in 1908. The 96-km long single track of the Kalka Shimla Railway opened for traffic on November 9, 1903.
The monuments at Mahabalipuram are situated on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu,India. It has near 40 sanctuaries, including the largest open-air rock relief in the world. These monuments includes: the Pancha Rathas of Dharmaraja Ratha, Arjuna Ratha, Bhima Ratha, Draupadi Ratha, Nakula Sahadeva Ratha, and also Ganesha Ratha. It was tagged as World Heritage site in 1984.
The Great Living Chola Temples were constructed by rulers of the Chola Empire. These temples are scattered in the all over of southern Indian region and upto the neighbouring islands. The site comprises 3 temples of 11th- and 12th-century namely the, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram (built by Rajendra I, and completed in 1035), Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur and the Airavatesvara Temple (built by Rajaraja II) at Darasuram. The temples justify the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture, sculpture, painting and bronze casting.
The Jantar Mantar monument of Jaipur, Rajasthan is a compilation of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments, built by the Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh II. It was completed in 1738 CE. There are jantar-mantar in the whole India, namely Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi, and Mathura. The main purpose of this observatory was to compile astronomical tables and predict the time and movements of the sun, earth and planets. Jantar-mantar of jaipur is world heritage site since 2010.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus Station in Mumbai, is an excellent example of Victorian Gothic architecture in India. The building, designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, became the symbol of Bombay as the ‘Gothic City’ and the major international mercantile port of India. This Railway Station is used by more than three million commuters daily. The terminal was completed in 10 years commenced in 1878. This was the first terminus station in the subcontinent.
Bhimbetka caves are located in the Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh. These Rock Shelters are in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau. Dr V. S. Wakankar (one of the most renowned archeologists), discovered these caves in 1958. The word 'Bhimbetka', derived from 'Bhim Baitka'. These caves are named after 'Bhima', one of the five Pandavas of Mahabharata. Bhimbetika simply means “sitting place of Bhima".
Hampi is situated on the southern bank of the river Tungabhadra in Karnataka. It is located within the ruins of the city of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. The empire boasted a massive army comprising close to a million men. In around 1500 AD Vijaynagar had about 500,000 inhabitants (supporting 0.1% of the global population during 1440-1540), making it the second largest city in the world. It is world heritage site since 1986.
Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is located in Panchmahal district in Gujarat, India. It is located around the historical city of Champaner, a city which was built by Sultan Mahmud Begada of Gujarat. The Pavagadh hill composed of reddish-yellow coloured stone formation is one of the oldest rock formations in India. The hill rises to a height of nearly 800 meters from the mean sea level.
The Churches and Convents at Velha (Old) Goa owe their existence to the Portuguese rule in this part of the western coast of India. The most comprehensive group of churches and cathedrals built during 16th to 17th century AD at Old Goa comprise of the following: Basilica of Bom Jesus, Se' Cathedral, Church and Convent of St. Francis of Assisi, Church of Lady of Rosary, Church of St. Augustine and Chapel of St. Catherine. These Churches and Convents declared as World Heritage Sites in 1986.
Humayun died in 1556, and his widow Hamida Banu Begam, also known as Haji Begam, commenced the construction of his tomb in 1569, fourteen years after his death. It is the first distinct example of proper Mughal style, which was inspired by Persian architecture. The tomb was constructed at a cost of 15 lakh rupees (1.5 million). Mirak Mirza Ghiyath, a Persian, was the architect employed by Haji Begam for this tomb.