In accordance with a key announcement made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Independence Day, the Union Government established NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) on Jan. 1, 2015, as replacement for the Planning Commission. This comes after extensive consultation across the spectrum of stakeholders, including state governments, domain experts and relevant institutions.
The All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are a group of autonomous public medical colleges of higher education. These institutes have been declared by Act of Parliament as institutions of national importance. AIIMS, New Delhi, is the front runner parent excellence institution, was established in 1956. There are 7 AIIMS are operational and 7more are proposed in the coming years.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), was initially constituted on April 12, 1988 as a non contributory body through a resolution of the government for dealing with all matters related to development and regulation of securities market and investor protection and to advice the government on all these matters. SEBI was given statutory status and powers through an ordinance promulgated on January 30, 1992.
Karnataka is a state in south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The capital and largest city is Bangalore/ Bengaluru is known as the silicon valley of India. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 per cent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest Indian state by area.
Kerala historically known as Keralam, is a state in South India on the Malabar coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and north east, Tamil Nadu to the east. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the thirteenth largest state by population and a highly literate state in the country.
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The city of Ranchi is its capital while the industrial city of Jamshedpur is the largest in the state. It is the top producer of iron ore, copper ore, kainite, mica and uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar).
Puducherry, formerly known as Pondicherry literally New Town in Tamil is a Union Territory of India. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India namely Puducherry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahe. It is named after the largest district Puducherry. Historically known as Pondicherry, the territory changed its official name to Puducherry (Putuccēri) on 20 September 2006.
Gujarat is a state in the western part of India, known locally as Jewel of the Western part of India. It has an area of 196,204 km2 (75,755 sq mi) with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi), most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea, as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar. It is best known for the Asiatic lions.
A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or star. For example, Earth is a satellite because it orbits the sun. Likewise, the moon is a satellite because it orbits Earth. Usually, the word "satellite" refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around Earth or another body in space. There are so many types of satellites like: Communication Satellites, Earth Observation Satellites, Navigation satellites, scientific & Exploration satellites, experimental satellites, small satellites etc launched by ISRO.
Launch Vehicles are used to transport and put satellites or spacecrafts into space. In India, the launch vehicles development programme began in the early 1970s. The first experimental Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) was developed in 1980. An Augmented version of this, ASLV, was launched successfully in 1992. India has made tremendous strides in launch vehicle technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle programme with the operationalisation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).
Chandrayaan-1 was India's first lunar probe. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in October 2008, and operated until August 2009. The mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor. It was launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, by the PSLV C-11 on 22 October 2008. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon.
Launch vehicles are used to transport and put satellites or spacecrafts into spaces. The first experimental Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) was developed in 1980. An augmented version of this, AS LV, was launched successfully in 1992. India has made tremendous strides in launch vehicle technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle programme with the operationalisation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Currently India is using cryogenic technology for launching the satellites.
India has launched 81 Indian satellites (as of 20 January 2016) of many types since its first in 1975. Satellites have been launched from various vehicles, including those launched by American, Russian and European rockets, as well as those launched indigenously by India.The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is responsible for India's satellite programs.
In the past five decades, ISRO has launched more than 50 satellites for various scientific and technological applications like mobile communications, Direct-to-Home services, meteorological observations, telemedicine, Tele- education, disaster warning, radio networking, search and rescue operations, remote sensing and scientific studies of the space. ISRO has established two major space systems, INSAT for series of communication and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) for resource monitoring & management.
The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) was established in 1958 by amalgamating the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation. It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence, Government of India headquartered in New Delhi. It works with a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems.
The Indian Space programme began in 1962. In 1969, The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was set up with headquartered in Bangaluru (Bangalore) for the purpose of rapid development in space technology. In 1972, space commission was set up and in 1975; India launched its first satellite “Aryabhatta” under the leadership of India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his close aide and scientist Vikram Sarabhai.
Lakshadweep formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 kilometres (120 to 270 mi) off the south western coast of India. Lakshadweep comes from "Lakshadweepa", which means "one hundred thousand islands" their total surface area is just 32 km2 (12 sq mi). Kavaratti serves as the capital of the Union Territory and the region comes under the jurisdiction of Kerala High Court.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government and is not part of either state. The city experiences extreme climate and uneven distribution of rainfall. The roads in Chandigarh are surrounded by trees and it has the third highest forest cover in India at 8.51% following Lakshadweep and Goa.
Telangana is a state in South India and one of the 29 states in India. It was formed on 2 June 2014 with the city of Hyderabad as its capital. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the North and North West, Chhattisgarh to the North. Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,193,978 (2011 census), making it the twelfth largest state in India, and the twelfth most populated state in India.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands is one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10°N parallel. The territory's capital is the Andamanese town of Port Blair. The total land area of these islands is approximately 7,950 km2 (3,070 sq mi). The capital of Nicobar Islands is Car Nicobar.
For over 450 years, the coastal enclaves of Daman and Diu on the Arabian Sea coast were part of Portuguese India, along with Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman and Diu were incorporated into the Republic of India on December 19, 1961, by military conquest. The territory of "Goa, Daman and Diu" was administered as a single union territory until 1987, when Goa was granted statehood, leaving Daman and Diu as a separate union territory.
Delhi is the capital city of India. It is historically and culturally connected to both the Upper Doab of the Yamuna-Ganges river system and the Punjab region. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. It has a population of about 16.75 million, making it the second most populous city and second most populous urban agglomeration in India and 3rd largest urban area in the world.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a Union Territory in Western India. Nagar Haveli is wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat, whereas Dadra is an enclave 1 km NW, surrounded by Gujarat. The shared capital is Silvassa. The larger part spans a roughly c-shaped area up-river from the city of Daman on the coast, at the centre of which, and thus outside the territory, is the Madhuban reservoir. It came into existence on 11 Aug. 1961.
West Bengal is a state in eastern India and is the nation's fourth-most populous state, with over 91 million inhabitants. Spread over 34,267 sq mi (88,750 km2), it is bordered by the countries of Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, and the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata. This state is most famous for Royal Bengal Tiger in Sundarvan.
Uttarakhand was formed on 9th November 2000 as the 27th State of India, when it was carved out of northern Uttar Pradesh. Located at the foothills of the Himalayan mountain ranges, it is largely a hilly State; having international boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. The four most sacred and revered Hindu temples of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri are nestled in this state. It’s truly God’s Land (Dev Bhoomi).
Tamil Nadu is known for Dravid inhabitant literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country) is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu, lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is the second largest state economy in India with (US$ 167.172 billion) in Gross Domestic Product.
Punjab, located in the north west of India, is one of the most prosperous states of India.The word Punjab is derived from the Persian words Panj ("five") and Āb ("waters"), thus Panjāb means "Five Rivers", which roughly means "Land of Five Rivers" such as Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. Punjab, a state bordering Pakistan, is the heart of India’s Sikh community. Its city of Amritsar, founded in 1577 by Sikh guru Ram Das, is the site of Harmandir Sahib, the holiest Gurdwara (Sikh Temple). It is called the granary of India because of huge production of food grains.
Odisha is one of the 29 states of India, located in the east of India. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south and south-east. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. Odia (formerly known as Oriya) is the official and most widely-spoken language.
Maharashtra, a state spanning west-central India, is best known for its fast-paced capital, Mumbai (formerly Bombay). This sprawling metropolis is the seat of the Bollywood film industry. It’s also famed for sites like the British Raj-era Gateway of India monument and the cave temples at nearby Elephanta Island. It was established in 1st May 1960.
Jammu & Kashmir is a state in northern India. It is located primarily in the Himalayan Mountains, and shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India. It is the first state of India which has its own flag and constitution. It became part of Indian Territory when its ruler maharaja Hari Singh accepted the sovereignty of India on 26 Oct, 1947.