The Environment is our basic life support system which provides the air for breathing, the water for drinking, the food for eating and the land for a living. It is collectively portrayed all the external forces and conditions, which influences the life, nature, growth and maturity of living organism, whereas ‘Ecology’ is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
The first Adaptation Gap Report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released on December 5, 2014. The report says that even with emissions cut, climate change adaptation costs are likely to hit two to three times the current estimates of $70-100 Billion per year by 2050. Anne Olhoff, lead author of the report said that 29 experts from 19 leading institutions reviewed data for the report and it primarily looks at gaps concerned with long term global goals of adaptation. The Green Climate Fund could play a central role in bridging the future adaptation funding gap.
National Green Tribunal (NGT) on 13 January 2015 gave directions to clean River Yamuna under Maily se Nirmal Yamuna Revitalization Plan 2017.
The directions were given by the principal bench of NGT presided over by Chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar. The tribunal's judgment came on a petition by Manoj Misra of Yamuna Jiye Abhiyan against pollution in the Yamuna and covering of drains in Delhi.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) launched GreenPHABLET( for small farmers) on 29 December 2014. GreenPHABLET is a customized low-cost combination of phone and tablet computer. The device was powered by GreenSIM.
The GreenPHABLET is dust- and shatter-proof, readable under bright sunlight; operates in -20°C to +60°C. The device has been developed by the ICRISAT Centre of Excellence in ICT Innovations for Agriculture in collaboration with NUNC Systems.
Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways and Shipping Nitin Gadkari on 5 June 2015 inaugurated India’s first-of-its-kind Tier-I Oil Spill Response Centre (OSRC) for Mumbai Port Trust (MBT), Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) and ONGC’s facilities at Nhava and Uran.
The objective behind setting up the centre is to develop appropriate and effective systems for the detection and reporting of oil spillage in order to ensure adequate protection to the marine environment and public health.
The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase - I which was taken up as 100% centrally funded scheme and aimed at preventing the pollution of river Ganga and to improve its water quality. The plan was started in June 1985. The program of river cleaning was extended to other major rivers of the country under two separate schemes of GAP Phase - II and the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP). Yamuna and Gomati Action Plans were approved in April 1993 under Ganga Action Plan Phase - II.
On June 30, 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released India’s first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation. The plan identifies eight core “National Missions” running through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change by December 2008.
A novel coronavirus called “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” (MERS-CoV) was first reported in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and has since spread to several other countries, including the United States. Most people infected with MERS-CoV have developed severe acute respiratory illness, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Currently this virus is active in South Korea.
The two-day State Environment and Forest Ministers’ Conference concluded at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi on 7 April 2015. The conference started on 6 April 2015.
The two-day conference, which was attended by 30 ministers from different state looked upon a wide range of issues like waste to wealth, ease of doing business, TSR Subramanian committee recommendations, forest, wildlife, pollution-related issues, biodiversity and climate change.
Washington-based World Resources Institute (WRI) and the Access Initiative on 20 May 2015 released the first Environmental Democracy Index (EDI) for the year 2015. The index evaluates the environmental democracy in 70 countries based on recognised international standards.
The index evaluates whether Governments are enacting national laws to promote transparency, accountability, and citizen engagement in environmental decision making. India was ranked at 24th position out of 70 countries in the first Environmental Democracy Index.
In April 1975, ex-zamindari forests of Kanika Raj were constituted and declared as Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary by State Government of Odisha. The Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary is one of India’s biggest estuarine crocodile habitats and a major coastal eco-system.
Later in 1998, it was declared as a National Park because of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological and zoological association and importance and for the purpose of protection. In August 2002, it was designated as the second Ramsar site (i.e. Wetland of International importance).
The air quality in Indian metro cities, especially Delhi, is deteriorating on daily basis leading to increasing number of mortality related to poor air quality. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), 1.9 million people in India die every year due to air pollution.
In a study published by the WHO in May 2014 and by Yale University in February 2014, the air in New Delhi was the most polluted in India and in the world.
Air pollution occurs when the air contains gases, dust, fumes or odour in harmful amounts. That is, amounts which could be harmful to the health or comfort of humans and animals or which could cause damage to plants and materials.
The substances that cause air pollution are called pollutants. Pollutants that are pumped into our atmosphere and directly pollute the air are called primary pollutants. Primary pollutant examples include carbon monoxide from car exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the combustion of coal.