Mauryan rule marks an important phase in our cultural history. Mainly in the period of Ashoka, the art and architecture was at its zenith and fall within the category of court art. Ashoka embraced Buddhism and the immense Buddhist missionary activities that followed encouraged the development of distinct sculptural and architectural styles. Let us find out various art and architecture of Mauryan period which had connected to the lives, activities and patronage of ordinary people.
The Sultans of India are perfectly autocrat unchecked by any restrictions and his word was law. The real source of the sultan’s authority was military strength. Various musicians and author stayed in the Sultans court who had written various books in which they have described about their administration, works, reforms, organisations, etc
Art and architecture which was a combination of Arabic and Indian styles that took a new direction in the Delhi Sultanate period. It witnesses the evolution and development of Indo-Islamic Architecture by synthesising geometrical shapes, calligraphy, inscriptional art etc. This Indo-Islamic architecture manifested the aesthetic heritage of the new sultans that includes both religious and secular structures.
As we all know that 350 years ago Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal for his favourite wife Mumtaz Mahal. Similarly, Faizul Hasan Qadri a retired 80 years old post master from Kaser Kalan village around 50 km from Bulandshahr distt, Western Uttar Pradesh is building a replica of the heritage in memory of his late ‘Begum’ as ‘mini Taj’.
The Great Living Chola Temples were built by kings of the Chola Empire, which stretched over all of south India and the neighbouring islands. The site includes three great 11th- and 12th-century Temples: Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur.
Gol Gumbaz, the tomb of Mohammed Adil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur, is located in Bijapur, Karnataka. The name means 'circular dome', and the tomb indeed has one of the biggest domes in India, with a diameter of 44 metres. It was completed in 1656 and its architect was Yaqut of Dabul. The amazing feature of this dome is that it stands unsupported by pillars. The dome houses the tombs of Muhammad Adil Shah, his two wives, his mistress, his daughter and grandson.
In 1911 King George V and queen Mary visited Delhi so to commemorate the arrival of their king, the Britishers decided to make a gateway of India. The chief architect of this gateway was George Wittet. Its construction was completed in 1911. The gateway was opened on 4th December 1924, by the Viceroy, the Earl of Reading. Its central dome is 15 metres in diameter, and touches the height of 26 metres above the ground.
The words 'Jal Mahal' mean ‘water palace' and the Jal Mahal Palace in Jaipur is just that. It was built in the 1750 by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Amber, right in the middle of the Man Sagar Lake. It is made of red sandstone. This is a splendid combination of the Rajput and Mughal styles of architecture. It is a five storey building, when the lake is full out of water its four storeys are dipped under water, and only the top floor is visible.
The Lotus Temple in New Delhi is a temple belonging to the Bahai sect. Bahaism is recognized as a combination of the nine great religions of the world and traces its genesis to the prophet Bahaullah. The temple is built in the shape of a floating half open lotus set amidst pools and gardens. This temple has no idols of any God. The Lotus Temple is the only Bahai temple of worship in Asia. It attracts about 4.5 million visitors in a year.
This fort is located near Hyderabad, the capital city of capital of Telangaga. The fort dates back to 1143, when it was built by the Qutb shahi dynasty. The historic Golconda Fort derives its name from a Telugu word ‘Golla Konda’ which means Shepherd’s. Initially it was a mud fort but later on transformed into granite one during the Qutb shahi dynasty.
The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which constructed from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE. These paintings are magnum opus of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales (stories related to the life Lord Buddha). The Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.
The Viceroy's House after indipendence became the official home of the President of India, located at the Western end of Rajpath in New Delhi, India which is popularly known as Rashtrapati Bhavan.The decision to build a residence in New Delhi for the British Viceroy during the Delhi Durbar in December 1911 that the capital of India would be relocated from Calcutta to Delhi. When the plan for a new city, New Delhi, adjacent to and south of Old Delhi, was developed after the Delhi Durbar, the new palace for the Viceroy of India was given an enormous size and prominent position.
The reference to Hindu temples in literature go back early with Panini (520 BC - 460 BC) and Patanjali mentioning temples which were called prasadas. Early beginnings of Hindu temple architecture have been traced to the remains at Aihole and Pattadakal in present day Karnataka, and have Vedic altars and late Vedic temples as described by Panini as models.
With the advent of Islam, the erstwhile Indian architecture was slightly adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion, but it remained strongly Indian at its heart and character. Arches and domes began to be used and the mosque or masjid too began to form part of the landscape, adding to a new experience in form and space.
The earliest production in the Indus Valley Civilization was characterised by well planned cities and houses. The presence of drainage systems and public baths showed advanced standards of hygiene and sanitation and ingenious planning.
With colonisation, a new chapter began. Though the Dutch, Portuguese and the French made substantial forays, it was the English who had a lasting impact.
Indian architecture is that vast tapestry of production of the Indian Subcontinent that encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time, transformed by the forces of history considered unique to the sub-continent, sometimes destroying, but most of the time absorbing. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that none the less retains a certain form of continuity.
Buddhism gained promi-nence during the reign of the emperor Ashoka. It is primarily represented by three important building types- the Chaitya Hall (place of worship), the Vihara (monastery) and the Stupa (hemispherical mound for worship/ memory)- exemplified by the magnificent caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa.