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What is General Anti Avoidance Rule (GAAR)?

The General Anti Avoidance Rule (GAAR)- proposed by the then Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee during the annual budget 2012-13


Integrated Child Development Services

ICDS stands for Integrated Child Development Services. ICDS was launched in the year 1975. It is a centrally sponsored scheme executed by the Human Resource Development Ministry.

Cooperative Marketing

Cooperative marketing is any agreement to coalesce marketing efforts, & therefore it can emerge in many forms. Complementary companies, and direct competitors, can generate efficient & equally advantageous supportive marketing campaigns.


NABARD stands for National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. NABARD is a leading development bank in India. Its headquarters are based in Mumbai (Maharashtra).

Problems of RRBs

RRB stands for Regional Rural Banks. Regional Rural Banks are local level banking organizations functioning in different Indian states. They have been formed with a vision to serve principally the rural areas of India with fundamental banking & financial services.


Livestock sub-sector, with its yearly outputs valued at nearly Rs. 170,000 crore - about 27% of agricultural Gross Domestic Product & engaging over 90 million people, is an extremely tactical & fundamental sub - sector for agrarian economy of India.

Operations of Commercial Banks

A commercial bank is a bank that offers services such as making business loans, offering basic investment products & accepting deposits.

Agricultural Finance

Agricultural finance is termed as a division of rural finance devoted to financing agricultural related activities such as production, input supply, wholesale, distribution, processing & marketing.

Green Revolution

Wheat has stayed the bastion of Green Revolution over the years. High - Yielding Varieties Programme was constrained to only 5 crops.


Pesticide is a substance or a mixture of substances, intended for averting, controlling or destroying any pest counting vectors of animal or human diseases, superfluous species of flora and fauna.

High - Yielding Varieties of Seeds

As per new agricultural plan, special importance has been positioned on the improvement and extensive adoption of high - yielding varieties of seeds.

Problems related to Irrigation

Irrigation helps in the budding of agricultural crops, re-vegetation of disturbed soils in parched areas as well as in upholding of landscapes.


Irrigation is the mock application of water to soil or land. It helps in the budding of agricultural crops, re-vegetation of disturbed soils in parched areas as well as in upholding of landscapes.

Agriculture: Land Reforms

As per 1949 Indian constitution, Indian states were approved the powers to implement and enact land reforms. This guarantees that there has been noteworthy deviation across Indian states.

Agriculture: Growth Concerns

The mounting gap between agriculture & non - agriculture sectors was most famous during the 10th Plan. There has been a severe delay in agricultural growth during the 9th and 10th Plans period with the rate of expansion in this sector slowing down to less than 2.5% per annum.

Natural Resources: Forests

Forests form the fundamental resource for upholding the ecological services, soil and water regimes, thus optimizing efficiency of forest means expanding pliability of soil, water & agriculture, which are the posts of rural livelihood refuge.

Per Capita Availability

The per capita availability of water at national level has turned down rapidly, from 1986 cu m to 1731 cu m in 1998 and 2005 respectively, making India treacherously close to the doorsill of 1700 cu m & being affirmed as a water paucity region of the World.

Natural Resources: Biodiversity and Agricultural Genetic Resources

Biodiversity refers to the plentiful wealth of flora & fauna together with soil micro - flora & micro - fauna & comprises the genetic wealth for livelihood security & welfare of farmers.

Natural Resources: Fisheries

Fisheries contribute considerably to food, economic & employment securities, nutrition & opportunely are one of the fastest growing agricultural sub - sectors since last three decades.

Natural Resources: Land and Soil

The biological productivity of the World, meeting our energy, food & other requirements, depends on health of soil, especially its nutrient, water & carbon balance.

Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012–2017)

Twelfth five year plan started in 2012 and will run till the year 2017. The Twelfth plan seeks to attain annual average economic growth rate of 8.2 %, down from 9 % foreseen earlier, in view of flimsy global recuperation.

Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–2012)

Eleventh Five Year Plan manifested empowerment through education and skill development. It also laid emphasis to elevate the sex ratio for age group 0 to 6 years.

Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002)

The main aim of Ninth Five Year Plan was attainment of objectives like human development, speedy industrialization, full - scale employment, self - reliance on domestic resources and poverty reduction.

Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992–1997)

Modernization of industries was a major highlight of the Eighth Five Year Plan. Under this plan, the steady opening of Indian economy was embarked to correct the mushrooming deficit & foreign debt.

Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985–1990)

Seventh Plan manifested the retort of Congress Party to power. The Seventh Five Year plan laid impetus on improving the efficiency level of industries by advancement of technology.

Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980–1985)

The sixth plan also manifested the commencement of economic liberalization. Indira Gandhi was prime minister of India during this period.

Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969–1974)

When Fourth Five Year Plan was implemented, Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India. Green Revolution in India developed and advanced agriculture.

Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974–1979)

In the Fifth Five Year Plan, Impetus was laid on poverty alleviation, justice and employment.

Third Five-Year Plan (1961–1966)

The Third 5 year Plan focused on agriculture & enhancement in the production of wheat, but the succinct Sino - Indian War in the year 1962 exposed flaws in the economy & shifted the spotlight towards the Defence industry.

Second Five-Year Plan (1956–1961)

The second five-year plan laid emphasis on industry, particularly heavy industry. Distinct from the First five year plan that laid impetus primarily on agriculture, the domestic production of industrial products was supported in the 2nd plan, chiefly in the development of public sector.


Jagranjosh.com presents the terms and terminology of various terms that hold special significance in the field of Economics.

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