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What is General Anti Avoidance Rule (GAAR)?

The General Anti Avoidance Rule (GAAR)- proposed by the then Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee during the annual budget 2012-13


New Economic Policy 1991

1991 is the year that holds a significant landmark in the economic history of post - Independent India. India went through a rigorous economic catastrophe prompted by a grave balance of payments state.

Employment Scenario in India

The sectoral allocation of personnel in India during the period 1983 to 2004 - 05 discloses that the structural alterations in terms of employment have been dawdling in India.

Service Sector in India

Today, the Service Sector in India accounts for more than half of India's Gross Domestic Product. As per the data, the share of services contributes to 55.1% of the Gross Domestic Product, where as agriculture and industry shares 18.5% and 26.4% respectively.

Policy Measures for the Development of the Services Sector

In post 1991 period, there were numerous measures taken on by the government to build up services sector, particularly through deregulation of some sub sectors of services sector.

Growth in the number of Agricultural Labourers

As per the Census of 1991, the number of agricultural workers was 73.7 million which 26.5 % is the total labour force. This shows that every 4th person of the labour force is an agricultural worker in our country.

Agricultural labourer

Intricacies in defining agricultural labour are compounded by the verity that many marginal as well as small farmers also work to a certain extent on the farms of others to add - on their income

Mid – Day Meal Scheme

Mid – day meal scheme is the national programme of nutritional support to primary education. It was launched in the year 1995.

Integrated Child Development Services

ICDS stands for Integrated Child Development Services. ICDS was launched in the year 1975. It is a centrally sponsored scheme executed by the Human Resource Development Ministry.

Cooperative Marketing

Cooperative marketing is any agreement to coalesce marketing efforts, & therefore it can emerge in many forms. Complementary companies, and direct competitors, can generate efficient & equally advantageous supportive marketing campaigns.


NABARD stands for National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. NABARD is a leading development bank in India. Its headquarters are based in Mumbai (Maharashtra).

Problems of RRBs

RRB stands for Regional Rural Banks. Regional Rural Banks are local level banking organizations functioning in different Indian states. They have been formed with a vision to serve principally the rural areas of India with fundamental banking & financial services.


Livestock sub-sector, with its yearly outputs valued at nearly Rs. 170,000 crore - about 27% of agricultural Gross Domestic Product & engaging over 90 million people, is an extremely tactical & fundamental sub - sector for agrarian economy of India.

Operations of Commercial Banks

A commercial bank is a bank that offers services such as making business loans, offering basic investment products & accepting deposits.

Agricultural Finance

Agricultural finance is termed as a division of rural finance devoted to financing agricultural related activities such as production, input supply, wholesale, distribution, processing & marketing.

Green Revolution

Wheat has stayed the bastion of Green Revolution over the years. High - Yielding Varieties Programme was constrained to only 5 crops.


Pesticide is a substance or a mixture of substances, intended for averting, controlling or destroying any pest counting vectors of animal or human diseases, superfluous species of flora and fauna.

High - Yielding Varieties of Seeds

As per new agricultural plan, special importance has been positioned on the improvement and extensive adoption of high - yielding varieties of seeds.

Problems related to Irrigation

Irrigation helps in the budding of agricultural crops, re-vegetation of disturbed soils in parched areas as well as in upholding of landscapes.


Irrigation is the mock application of water to soil or land. It helps in the budding of agricultural crops, re-vegetation of disturbed soils in parched areas as well as in upholding of landscapes.

Agriculture: Land Reforms

As per 1949 Indian constitution, Indian states were approved the powers to implement and enact land reforms. This guarantees that there has been noteworthy deviation across Indian states.

Agriculture: Growth Concerns

The mounting gap between agriculture & non - agriculture sectors was most famous during the 10th Plan. There has been a severe delay in agricultural growth during the 9th and 10th Plans period with the rate of expansion in this sector slowing down to less than 2.5% per annum.

Natural Resources: Forests

Forests form the fundamental resource for upholding the ecological services, soil and water regimes, thus optimizing efficiency of forest means expanding pliability of soil, water & agriculture, which are the posts of rural livelihood refuge.

Per Capita Availability

The per capita availability of water at national level has turned down rapidly, from 1986 cu m to 1731 cu m in 1998 and 2005 respectively, making India treacherously close to the doorsill of 1700 cu m & being affirmed as a water paucity region of the World.

Natural Resources: Biodiversity and Agricultural Genetic Resources

Biodiversity refers to the plentiful wealth of flora & fauna together with soil micro - flora & micro - fauna & comprises the genetic wealth for livelihood security & welfare of farmers.

Natural Resources: Fisheries

Fisheries contribute considerably to food, economic & employment securities, nutrition & opportunely are one of the fastest growing agricultural sub - sectors since last three decades.

Natural Resources: Land and Soil

The biological productivity of the World, meeting our energy, food & other requirements, depends on health of soil, especially its nutrient, water & carbon balance.

Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012–2017)

Twelfth five year plan started in 2012 and will run till the year 2017. The Twelfth plan seeks to attain annual average economic growth rate of 8.2 %, down from 9 % foreseen earlier, in view of flimsy global recuperation.

Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–2012)

Eleventh Five Year Plan manifested empowerment through education and skill development. It also laid emphasis to elevate the sex ratio for age group 0 to 6 years.

Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002)

The main aim of Ninth Five Year Plan was attainment of objectives like human development, speedy industrialization, full - scale employment, self - reliance on domestic resources and poverty reduction.

Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992–1997)

Modernization of industries was a major highlight of the Eighth Five Year Plan. Under this plan, the steady opening of Indian economy was embarked to correct the mushrooming deficit & foreign debt.

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