Indian drainage system consists of a large number of small and big rivers. It is the outcome of the evolutionary process of the three major physiographic units and the nature and characteristics of precipitation. The Himalayan drainage system includes the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins. The peninsular plateau is drained by Narmada, Tapi, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri.
A Drainage pattern can be defined in the shadow of topographical features from which a stream get runoff, through flow, and groundwater flow which can be divided by topographic barriers called a watershed. A watershed can be defined as all of the stream tributaries that flow to some location along the stream channel.
Geography may be studied by way of several interrelated approaches, i.e., systematically, regionally, descriptively, and analytically. The important terms of Geography are classifiers tools for making sense of the world. These terms helps us to plan geographically rigorous, engaging and challenging sequences of learning that will encourage careful and challenging thinking about a geographical topic. They are also the concepts central to a discipline that increasingly engages with the humanities as well as with the physical and social sciences.
A mountain pass locally is the highest point on the route through a mountain range or over the ridge. It played an important role in trade, war, and migration. It also known as notches, gaps, saddles, cols, hauses, bwlch (Welsh), bealach or brennig (Gaelic). Important passes are- Zoji La (Pass), Banihal Pass, Shipki La (Pass),Bara-Lacha Pass, Rohtang Pass, Mana Pass, Niti Pass, Nathu La (Pass),Jalep La (Pass) etc.
India is a land of natural beauty and islands in India forms a significant part with well-encompassed by lush forests and possess the infinite variety of striking fauna and flora. There are two major island groups in India – one in the Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. However, some smaller islands are volcanic in origin. Barren Island, the only active volcano in India is also situated in the Nicobar Islands.
The Eastern Coastal Plains extends between the Eastern Ghats and the sea coast from Subarnarekha River to Kanyakumari. It is wider than Western Coastal Plain because the rivers like Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri formed the delta over there. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours.
The Western Ghats Coastal Plain extends from Surat to Kanyakumari which is divided into four parts:The Gujarat Plain- Coastal area of Gujarat; The Konkan Plain- Between Daman and Goa;The Kannad Plain- Between Goa and Mangalore; The Malabar Plain- Between Mangalore and Kanyakumari.
The Eastern Ghats Mountain Ranges are extends from Orissa to Tamil Nadu. It is more eroded than the Western Ghats. It is drained by the Godavari and the Krishna River. Vishakhapatnam Peak is the highest peak of this range. Mahendragiri is the second highest peak of this range. It continues as the Javadi and Shevaroy hills in the south-west of Chennai, beyond which they merge with the Western Ghats.
The Western Ghat Mountain Range or Sahyadri Range is the India’s largest mountain range after the Himalayas which extend from the Tapi river valley to the Nilgiri. The range is called Sahyadri in northern Maharashtra and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala. This range is the home of many hill stations like Matheran,Lonavala-Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu.
The Indian Desert is located to the north-west of the Aravali hills lies the Great Indian Desert. This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm per year; hence, it has arid climate with low vegetation cover. It is because of these characteristic features that this is also known as Marusthali. The region was under the sea during the Mesozoic era which can be established or strengthen as with new evidence or facts by the available at wood fossils park at Aakal and marine deposits around Brahmsar, near Jaisalmer.
The Great Indian Plains is located between the Himalayas and the peninsular India. The rivers originating from the Himalayas (i.e. The Ganga; The Yamuna; The Indus, The Brahmaputra; The Kosi etc) and those rivers which are peninsular origin have added fertility in this region by depositing alluvial soil. On the basis of structural characteristics and slope, this region can be divided into four parts- Bhabar, the Tarai Region, Bangar, and Khadar.
The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These plains extend approximately 3,200 km from the east to the west. The average width of these plains varies between 150-300 km. The maximum depth of alluvium deposits varies between 1,000-2,000 m. From the north to the south, these can be divided into three major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai and the alluvial plains. The alluvial plains can be further divided into the Khadar and the Bhangar.
The Peninsular Plateau of India is roughly triangular in shape with its base parallel to the Ganga Valley and its apex pointing towards the southern tips of the country. It is hard old mass of igneous and metamorphic rocks being part of the tectonic plate called the Gondwanaland. This is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north.
The Aravalli Range is one of the most popular mountain ranges and the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest. The length of the Aravalis is about 1100 km which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni, Sakhi, and Sabarmati.
The Himalayas bend sharply to the south beyond the Dihang gorge and move outwards to form a covering the eastern boundary of the country. They are known as ‘the Eastern or Purvanchal Hills’. It extended in the north-eastern states of India. Most of these hills are extended along the border of India and Myanmar while others are inside India namely- the Patkai Bum Hills, the Naga Hills and the Mizo Hills.
The Trans-Himalayas Mountain Region or Tibet Himalayan Region is located to the north of the Great Himalayas which is consists of Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Kailash mountain ranges. It is also called the Tibet Himalayan Region because most of the part of these ranges lies in the Tibet. The Karakoram Range is known as the ‘backbone of high Asia’. K2 is the second highest peak in the world and highest in the Indian Territory.
The geology of India is very diverse because an Indian rock belongs to different geologic periods, dating as far back as the Eoarchean Era. Some of the rocks are very deformed and altered. Other deposits include recently deposited alluvium that has yet to undergo digenesis. Mineral deposits of great variety are found in the Indian subcontinent in huge quantity. Even India's fossil record is impressive in which stromatolites, invertebrates, vertebrates and plant fossils are included. India's geographical land area can be classified into Deccan trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan.
The history of Earth’s geological structure can be divided into five eras- Azoic (Non-living era), Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic and Neozoic era. The Azoic era is the era of the origin of the continental shelf. At that time the origin of the continental shelf (Pangaea) was formed by the silica rich granite rocks of less density. The oldest rocks of the Archaean period are found in the peninsular India which is a part of the oldest landmass Pangaea on one hand, while there is an abundance of the latest sedimentary rocks of the Quaternary epoch in its plains.
India lies largely on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent Physical divisions, are marked by natural configuration. India may be divided broadly into five physical units -The Great Mountains of the north; The north Indian plain; The Peninsular Plateau; The coastal plains; The Islands.
India is a union of States and Union Territories For the purposes of administration, India is divided into 29 States (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh) and 7 Union Territories. Delhi, the capital of India, is the largest metropolis in India.
The Green Revolution is referred to as the process of increasing agricultural production by incorporating modern tools and techniques. In the second half of Second Five year plan, Ford Foundation sponsored a team of experts invited by the Government of India to propose ways to boost agricultural production & efficiency. As per recommendations of the expert team, government of India introduced a rigorous development programme in 7 districts selected from seven States in the year 1960. This programme was termed as IADP (Intensive Area Development Programme).
India is an agriculturally important country. 58 % of its population depends on agriculture for livelihood. About 51 % of the total area of India is used for agriculture whereas only 5 % area of Canada, 11 % of China, 13 % of Japan and 20 % of the USA is used for that purposes. Cultivation of crops (farming) including horticulture, rearing of animals, forestry and fishing are collectively called agriculture.
The Tank irrigation is more in the rocky plateau area of the county, where the rainfall is uneven and highly seasonal. The Eastern Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Interiors of Tamil Nadu and some parts of Andhra Pradesh have more land under tank irrigation. It is an old‐established practice, particularly in semi‐arid tropical parts of South India, but is today a neglected resource, and irrigation tanks are underutilized due to mismanagement.
Well and Tube Well irrigation is the most popular irrigation system in India. The first tube well was dug in 1930 in Uttar Pradesh. Today there are more than 50 lakh tube wells operating in different parts of India. It has contributed substantially for the success of Green Revolution in India. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under well irrigation. It is followed by Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Bihar.
Canal irrigation is the most important form of irrigation in India. It is cheaper. About half 165.97 lakh hectare land was irrigated by canals during 2008-09. About half of it is limited to the states situated in the Northern large plain. The maximum part of the total irrigated area of the country by canals is in Uttar Pradesh. Other major states where irrigation is done by canals are Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and Bihar. There are two types- Inundation Canal and Perennial Canals.
About one-third part of the net sown area of India is irrigated. According to 2008-09, the total irrigated land in India is about 631.96 lakh hectare. There is the need for development of the means of irrigation for agriculture in India because of tropical climate and indefinite, unequal and short period monsoon rain.
96.5 per cent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 per cent as freshwater. Nearly 70 per cent of this freshwater occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and the mountainous regions of the world, while a little less than 30 per cent is stored as groundwater in the world’s aquifers. India receives nearly 4 per cent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
The IUCN Red List are the bearers of genetic diversity and the building blocks of ecosystems, and information on their conservation status and distribution provides the foundation for making informed decisions about conserving biodiversity from local to global levels. The IUCN Global Species Programme working with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) has been assessing the conservation status of species, subspecies, varieties, and even selected subpopulations on a global scale for the past 50 years in order to highlight taxa threatened with extinction, and thereby promote their conservation.
Under the agreement of Human Environment Conference 1972 (Stockholm) the Project Tiger was launched in India in 1973 with the help of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). According to the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and the Ministry of Environment and Forests, India, there were only 9 tiger reserved in India during 1973-74 whereas there have been established 41 of them till January 2013.
Indian sub-continent is not only well known for its Cultural diversity but also have diverse range of flora and fauna. Human activities are permitted in a wildlife sanctuary whereas these are completely restricted in a national park. Hunting is prohibited without permission in a sanctuary; however, grazing and movement of cattle are permitted. Therefore, India houses a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks that help in preserving the wildlife in its natural form. Hunting and grazing are totally prohibited in a national park.