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General Knowledge for Competitive Exams

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List of Environmentally Hazardous Particulates: Types & Meaning

Particulates are small pieces of solid material (for example, smoke particles from fire, bits of asbestos, dust particles and ash from industries) that dispersed into the atmosphere. Here, we are giving the list of types of particulates that environmentally Hazardous.

Summary on Soil Profile of India

Soil is the mixture of mineral and organic components which are the basis of plants growth. It is formed from breakdown of parent rocks or physical and chemical changes of parent rocks. Here, we are giving a detailed summary on soil Profile of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Have you ever wondered how 29 States in India got their Names

India derived its name from Indus River and the Aryan worshippers referred Indus River as Sindhu. The invaders of Persia converted it into Hindu. Therefore, the name ‘Hindustan’ combines with Sindhu and Hindu. Billions of people live together in India in 29 states where Language, History, Rulers etc. of particular regions has also contributed to the names. That is why we call it as Unity in diversity. Let see how Indian 29 States got their name.

List of Biosphere Reserves in India

The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO introduced the designation of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas in November, 1971. The National Biosphere Reserve Programme in India was initiated in 1986 to serve as wider base for conservation of entire range of living resources and their ecological foundations in addition to already established protected area network system.

List of Invasive Alien Flora of India

Alien Species that threaten native plants and animals of other aspects of biodiversity are called alien invasive species. Here, we are giving the list of Invasive Alien Flora of India which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of India's Biosphere Reserves in UNESCO MAB list

The Agricultural Revolution or Agrarian Revolution refers to the significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that change production. Here, we are giving the list of India's Biosphere Reserves in UNESCO MAB list which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Sacred Groves of India

The Sacred Groves comprises of patches of forest or natural vegetation- from a few trees to forests of several acres-that are usually dedicated to local folk deities. Here, we are giving the list of Sacred Groves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Mangrove Sites in India

The Mangroves are the tropical trees or shrubs bearing fruit that germinates while still on the tree and having numerous prop roots that eventually form an impenetrable mass and are important in land building. Here, we are giving the list of Mangrove Sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Bio-geographic Zones and Bio-geographic Provinces of India

The Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. There are 10 bio-geographical Zones in India. The bio-geographical province is an ecosystematic or biotic subdivision of realm. India is divided into 25 bio-geographic provinces. Here, we are giving the list of Bio-geographic Zones and Bio-geographic Provinces of which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Mike Sites in India

The Monitoring the Killing of Elephants acronyms as MIKE. The prime objectives of the MIKE are to measure levels and trends in the illegal poacher of elephants. So that Government build their institutional capacity within the range States for the long-term management of their elephant populations. Here, we are giving the list of Mike Sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Elephant Reserves of India

The Government of India had launched the project Elephant in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with objectives to protect elephants, their habitat & corridors; to address issues of man-animal conflict; and welfare of captive elephants. Here, we are giving the list of Elephant Reserves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Project Tiger Reserves of India

The tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India to   ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance. Here, we are giving the list of Project Tiger Reserves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Ramsar wetland sites in India

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.  Here, we are giving the list of Ramsar wetland sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Indus Water Treaty (IWT): Water-Sharing Agreement

The Indus Water Treaty is the treaty between the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan for the optimum utilisation of the waters of the Indus system of rivers. It was signed under the arbitration of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now World Bank) in Karachi (Pakistan) on September 19, 1960.

List of Indian States in Mineral Wealth

India's major mineral resources include Coal (4th largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese ore (7th largest reserve in the world), Mica, Bauxite (5th largest reserve in the world), Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along coast of Kerala shores). Here, we are giving the list of Indian States in Mineral Wealth which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Agricultural Revolution in India | Reasons & Effects

The Agricultural Revolution or Agrarian Revolution refers to the significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that change production. Here, we are giving the list of Agricultural Revolution in India which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of the world's important cities situated on the Bank of Rivers

Cities were often founded on the banks of rivers because of availability of water and fertility of soil. Many big cities of the world are shaped and known by the river that runs through it. Here, we are giving the list of the World's important cities situated on the Bank of Rivers which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Indian States on International Boundaries

India is the seventh largest country in the world and it is the only country in the Indian subcontinent to share its land frontiers with every member country of the subcontinent. Here, we are giving list of Indian States on International Boundaries which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Major Crops of India |Temperature, Rainfall & Soil

India is a land of diversity not only culturally but also by soil profile and climate due to this a variety of food and cash crops are grown. Here, we are giving the “List of Major Crops of India |Temperature, Rainfall & Soil” along with their temperature, rainfall and soil that they requires to grow which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

List of Major Crops and Producing States in India

Agriculture is the largest livelihood provider in India. It also contributes a significant figure to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Here, we are giving the “List of Major Crops and Producing States in India” which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Indian Geography: A Complete Study Material

This comprehensive Study Material “Indian Geography” is designed with the reference of NCERT books and some more books like Majid Hussain (Geography of India), Savinder Singh (Physical Geography), D.R Khullar (India: A Comprehensive Geography), Mahesh Barnwal (Geography: A Comprehensive Study) etc.

Human Migration

The movement of people from region to region for the purpose of permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary is called Migration. For example:  "semi-permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm labourers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Birth and death is another reason for the population size changes. It may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and resources.

Mass Communication System

A process in which a person, group of people, or an organization sends a message through a channel of communication to a large group of anonymous and heterogeneous people and organizations is called Mass Communication System. All India Radio broadcasts a variety of programmes related to information, education and entertainment. Television broadcasting has emerged as the most effective audio-visual medium for disseminating information and educating masses. Satellites are mode of communication in themselves as well as they regulate the use of other means of communication.

Personal Communication System

Human beings have evolved different methods of communication over time. In earlier times, the messages were delivered by beating the drum or hollow tree trunks, giving indications through smoke or fire or with the help of fast runners. Horses, camels, dogs, birds and other animals were also used to send messages. Initially, the means of communication were also the means of transportation. Invention of post office, telegraph, printing press, telephone, satellite, etc has made the communication much faster and easier.

Oil and Gas Pipelines

Oil and Gas Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long distances. Even solids can also be transported by pipelines after converting them into slurry. Oil India Limited (OIL) under the administrative set up of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is engaged in the exploration, production and transportation of crude oil and natural gas. Asia’s first cross country pipeline covering a distance of 1,157 km was constructed by OIL from Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar.

Air Transportation

Air transport is the fastest means of movement from one place to the other. It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time. Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini. But its real development took place in post-Independent period. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space.

Water Transport

Waterways are an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India. It is the cheapest means of transport and is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky material. It is a fuel-efficient and eco-friendly mode of transport. The water transport is of two types– (a) inland waterways, and (b) oceanic waterways. Inland waterways are s the chief mode of transport before the advent of railways. Oceanic routes play an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy.

Rail Transport

Rail Transport network in India is one of the longest in the world. The first railway on Indian sub-continent ran over a stretch of 21 miles from Bombay to Thane. Indian Railways, the premier transport organization of the country is the largest rail network in Asia and the world's second largest under one management. Indian Railway is controlled by the Railway Ministry and the Railway Board and for better services and control, the rail transportation is divided into 16 zones or division with headquarter.

Road Transport

India has one of the largest road networks in the world. For the purpose of construction and maintenance, roads are classified as National Highways (NH), State Highways (SH), Major District Roads and Rural Roads. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is the apex body to improve the quality of the National Highways. State highways are constructed and maintained by state governments. The Border Road Organisation (BRO) was established in May 1960 for accelerating economic development and strengthening defence preparedness.

Transport and Communication

If the amount of export and import roughly equals or export is more than import, the country is supposed to have a balanced trade or favourable trade. In a way, it indicates towards the good condition of a country’s economy. The use of transport and communication depends upon our need to move things from place of their availability to the place of their use. Human-beings use various methods to move goods, commodities, ideas from one place to another.

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