The Mangroves are the tropical trees or shrubs bearing fruit that germinates while still on the tree and having numerous prop roots that eventually form an impenetrable mass and are important in land building. Here, we are giving the list of Mangrove Sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. There are 10 bio-geographical Zones in India. The bio-geographical province is an ecosystematic or biotic subdivision of realm. India is divided into 25 bio-geographic provinces. Here, we are giving the list of Bio-geographic Zones and Bio-geographic Provinces of which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Monitoring the Killing of Elephants acronyms as MIKE. The prime objectives of the MIKE are to measure levels and trends in the illegal poacher of elephants. So that Government build their institutional capacity within the range States for the long-term management of their elephant populations. Here, we are giving the list of Mike Sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Government of India had launched the project Elephant in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with objectives to protect elephants, their habitat & corridors; to address issues of man-animal conflict; and welfare of captive elephants. Here, we are giving the list of Elephant Reserves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India to ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance. Here, we are giving the list of Project Tiger Reserves of India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands. Here, we are giving the list of Ramsar wetland sites in India which is very useful in the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Indus Water Treaty is the treaty between the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan for the optimum utilisation of the waters of the Indus system of rivers. It was signed under the arbitration of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now World Bank) in Karachi (Pakistan) on September 19, 1960.
India's major mineral resources include Coal (4th largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese ore (7th largest reserve in the world), Mica, Bauxite (5th largest reserve in the world), Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along coast of Kerala shores). Here, we are giving the list of Indian States in Mineral Wealth which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The Agricultural Revolution or Agrarian Revolution refers to the significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that change production. Here, we are giving the list of Agricultural Revolution in India which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
Cities were often founded on the banks of rivers because of availability of water and fertility of soil. Many big cities of the world are shaped and known by the river that runs through it. Here, we are giving the list of the World's important cities situated on the Bank of Rivers which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
India is the seventh largest country in the world and it is the only country in the Indian subcontinent to share its land frontiers with every member country of the subcontinent. Here, we are giving list of Indian States on International Boundaries which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
India is a land of diversity not only culturally but also by soil profile and climate due to this a variety of food and cash crops are grown. Here, we are giving the “List of Major Crops of India |Temperature, Rainfall & Soil” along with their temperature, rainfall and soil that they requires to grow which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
Agriculture is the largest livelihood provider in India. It also contributes a significant figure to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Here, we are giving the “List of Major Crops and Producing States in India” which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
This comprehensive Study Material “Indian Geography” is designed with the reference of NCERT books and some more books like Majid Hussain (Geography of India), Savinder Singh (Physical Geography), D.R Khullar (India: A Comprehensive Geography), Mahesh Barnwal (Geography: A Comprehensive Study) etc.
The movement of people from region to region for the purpose of permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary is called Migration. For example: "semi-permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm labourers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Birth and death is another reason for the population size changes. It may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and resources.
A process in which a person, group of people, or an organization sends a message through a channel of communication to a large group of anonymous and heterogeneous people and organizations is called Mass Communication System. All India Radio broadcasts a variety of programmes related to information, education and entertainment. Television broadcasting has emerged as the most effective audio-visual medium for disseminating information and educating masses. Satellites are mode of communication in themselves as well as they regulate the use of other means of communication.
Human beings have evolved different methods of communication over time. In earlier times, the messages were delivered by beating the drum or hollow tree trunks, giving indications through smoke or fire or with the help of fast runners. Horses, camels, dogs, birds and other animals were also used to send messages. Initially, the means of communication were also the means of transportation. Invention of post office, telegraph, printing press, telephone, satellite, etc has made the communication much faster and easier.
Oil and Gas Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long distances. Even solids can also be transported by pipelines after converting them into slurry. Oil India Limited (OIL) under the administrative set up of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is engaged in the exploration, production and transportation of crude oil and natural gas. Asia’s first cross country pipeline covering a distance of 1,157 km was constructed by OIL from Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar.
Air transport is the fastest means of movement from one place to the other. It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time. Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini. But its real development took place in post-Independent period. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space.
Waterways are an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India. It is the cheapest means of transport and is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky material. It is a fuel-efficient and eco-friendly mode of transport. The water transport is of two types– (a) inland waterways, and (b) oceanic waterways. Inland waterways are s the chief mode of transport before the advent of railways. Oceanic routes play an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy.
Rail Transport network in India is one of the longest in the world. The first railway on Indian sub-continent ran over a stretch of 21 miles from Bombay to Thane. Indian Railways, the premier transport organization of the country is the largest rail network in Asia and the world's second largest under one management. Indian Railway is controlled by the Railway Ministry and the Railway Board and for better services and control, the rail transportation is divided into 16 zones or division with headquarter.
India has one of the largest road networks in the world. For the purpose of construction and maintenance, roads are classified as National Highways (NH), State Highways (SH), Major District Roads and Rural Roads. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is the apex body to improve the quality of the National Highways. State highways are constructed and maintained by state governments. The Border Road Organisation (BRO) was established in May 1960 for accelerating economic development and strengthening defence preparedness.
If the amount of export and import roughly equals or export is more than import, the country is supposed to have a balanced trade or favourable trade. In a way, it indicates towards the good condition of a country’s economy. The use of transport and communication depends upon our need to move things from place of their availability to the place of their use. Human-beings use various methods to move goods, commodities, ideas from one place to another.
India is one of fast growing forest-based industries in the world. The growing knowledge base coupled with synergistic contribution from the flagship schemes of the government. Forest-based Industry includes- the paper industry, match industry, silk industry, lac industry, sports goods industry and handicraft. India is a leading country in lac production. 60% of lac in the world is produced here. India is also the largest exporter of lac in the world.
The agro-based industry includes indutries related to textiles, sugar, paper and vegetable oil. These industries use agricultural products as their raw materials. Textile industry is the largest industry in the organized sector. It comprises of (i) cotton textiles, (ii) woollen textiles, (iii) silk textiles (iv) synthetic fibres and (v) jute textile industries. Textiles have been a major component of the industrial sector. It accounts for nearly a fifth of the industrial output and a third of the export earnings.
India's Pharmaceutical Industry is leading manufacturers and is becoming global players, utilizing both organic growths, through the gradual development of their business. Currently, it represents just U.S. $6 billion of the $550 billion global pharmaceutical industry, but its share is increasing at 10 percent a year, compared to 7 percent annual growth in the world market overall. The “organized” sector of India's pharmaceutical industry consists of 250 to 300 companies, which account for 70 percent of products on the market, with the top 10 firms representing 30 per cent.
The Engineering Industry is the largest among all industrial sectors in India. It incorporates diverse segments of industry which can be broadly divided into two segments, namely, heavy engineering and light engineering. It is relatively less fragmented at the top, as the competencies required are high, while it is highly fragmented at the lower end (e.g. unbranded transformers for the retail segment) and is dominated by smaller players. The engineering industry in India manufactures a wide range of products, with heavy engineering goods accounting for bulk of the production.
Petro-Chemical group of industries have been growing very fast in India. A variety of products come under this category of industries. In 1960s, demand for organic chemicals increased so fast that it became difficult to meet this demand. At that time, petroleum refining industry expanded rapidly. Many items are derived from crude petroleum, which provide raw materials for many new industries; these are collectively known as petrochemical industries. This group of industries is divided into four sub-groups: Polymers, Synthetic fibres, Elastomers and Surfactant intermediate.
Chemical fertilizers played vital role in the success of Green Revolution in India and consequent self-reliance in food-grain production, the Government of India has been consistently pursuing policies conducive to increase the availability and consumption of fertilizers in the country. The country has achieved near self-sufficiency in production capacity of urea with the result that India could substantially manage its requirement of nitrogenous fertilizers through the indigenous industry.
Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation. The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries. The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.