Asian Development Bank (ADB) was established in Dec. 1966. The aim of this bank was to accelerate economic and social development in Asia and pacific region. The bank started its functioning on January 1, 1967. Its head quarter is located at Manila, Philippines. Its chairmanship is always given to Japanese and 3 deputy chairmen belong to USA, Europe and Asia.
A country found itself in debt trap when the expenditure of a country exceeds the revenue of that country year by year. After factual analysis we found that Japan is the most debt ridden country in the world followed by the Greece and Lebanon. Japan has debt of 229% of its GDP.
The 20th century has established so many institutions/organisations in the area of economics, social and politics. Some institutions like World Bank, International Monetary Fund is made to deal with monetary issues, United Nations is made to deal with political issues and European Union is made to deal with social and commercial issues.
The Group of Eight (G-8) refers to the group of eight highly industrialized nations—France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, Canada, and Russia—that hold an annual meeting to foster consensus on global issues like economic growth and crisis management, global security, energy, and terrorism. The G6 was made up of France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and America. It then changed to G7 when Canada joined in 1976 and G8 with Russia in 1998.
South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA- 1993) was envisaged primarily as the first step towards the transition to a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) leading subsequently towards a Customs Union, Common Market and Economic Union. In 1995, the Sixteenth session of the Council of Ministers (New Delhi, 18-19 December 1995) agreed on the need to strive for the realization of SAFTA. At the12th SAARC Summit (Jan. 4-6, 2004) at Islamabad, the Capital City of Pakistan, SAPTA became SAFTA. ASEAN (1967) is a union of South-East Asian Nations.
The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), The International Finance Corporation (IFC), The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). IFC was established in July 1956 that provides loans to private industries for developing nations without any government guarantee and also promotes the additional capital investment in these countries. MIGA came into existence on April 1988.
BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India and China, South Africa) was initially formulated in 2001 by economist Jim O'Neill, of Goldman Sachs, in a report on growth prospects for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China – which together represented a significant share of the world's production and population. In 2006, the four countries initiated a regular informal diplomatic coordination, with annual meetings of Foreign Ministers at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly (UNGA).
The European Union (EU) is a unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries that together cover much of the continent. It was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries that trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. It is based on the rule of law: everything that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily and democratically agreed by all members.
IBSA was Established in June 2003,as a coordinating mechanism amongst three emerging countries(India, Brazil, South Africa), three multi ethnic and multicultural democracies, which are determined to: contribute to the construction of a new international architecture, bring their voice together on global issues, deepen their ties in various areas. Trade between IBSA partners has increased significantly since the Forum's inception and indications are that the target of US$ 25 billion by 2015 will be readily achieved.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was created in 1944 to help Europe rebuild after World War II. Today, IBRD provides loans and other assistance primarily to middle income countries. IBRD is the original World Bank institution. It works closely with the rest of the World Bank Group (IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA) to help developing countries reduce poverty, promote economic growth, and build prosperity. IBRD is owned by the governments of its 188 member countries.
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international organisation which sets the rules for global trade. This organisation was set up in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) created after the Second World War. It has 153 members. All decisions are taken unanimously but the major economic powers such as the US, EU and Japan has managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade to advance their own interests.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the inter-governmental organisation established to stabilize the exchange rate in the international trade. It helps the member countries to improve their Balance of Payment (BOP) condition thorough the adequate liquidity in the international market, promote the growth of global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade. It is one of the Bretton woods twins, which came into existence in 1945, is governed by and accountable to the 188 countries that make up its near-global membership.
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is arguably the most important and comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property rights. Member countries of the WTO are automatically bound by the agreement. The Agreement covers most forms of intellectual property including patents, copyright, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, trade secrets, and exclusionary rights over new plant varieties. It came into force on 1 January 1995 and is binding on all members of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) means “cross border investment made by a resident in one economy OR in an enterprise in another economy, with the aim of earning profits in the targeted country. Mostly the investment is into production by either buying a company in the targeted country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country”. These investments can be made for many reasons, i.e. to take advantage of cheaper wage rate, special investment facilities offered by the country or the conducive atmosphere in the country.
The government of India has liberalized the schemes for the export oriented units and export processing zones, agriculture, horticulture, poultry, fisheries and dairying have been included in the export oriented units. Export promotion capital goods schemes (EPCGS) has been started to permit the exporters to import capital goods on concessional import duties. Under the EPCGS scheme, such importers of capital goods have to export goods of 4 times values of import within next five years. Establishment of the EXIM bank and SEZs promoted the export from country.
In 1950 the Indian share in the world trade was 1.78% which came down to 0.6% in 1995. Currently it is 2.07% ($779 bn.) of the total world trade. The percentage of non traditional goods in total exports has increased the exports of chemical and engineering goods have shown a high growth rate. The manufactured goods constitute the bulk of export over 64% in recent years, followed by crude and petroleum products (including coal) with a 20% share and agriculture & allied with just 13% share.
Under the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures of the World Trade Organization (WTO), commonly known as the TRIMs Agreement, WTO members have agreed not to apply certain investment measures related to trade in goods that restrict or distort trade. The TRIMs Agreement prohibits certain measures that violate the national treatment and quantitative restrictions requirements of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
Foreign exchange market is the market in which foreign currencies are bought and sold. Being a member of IMF, India followed the par value system of pegged exchange rate system. But when the Breton Woods system collapsed in 1971, the rupee was pegged to pound sterling for four years after which it was initially linked to the basket of 14 currencies but later reduced to 5 currencies of India’s major trading partners. Currently India has adopted the managed exchange rate system.
In the budget of 1997-98, the government had proposed to replace FERA-1973, by FEMA (Foreign Exchange management act). FEMA was proposed by the both house of the parliament in Dec. 1999. After the approval of president, FEMA 1999 has come into force w.e.f. June, 2000. Under the FEMA, provisions related to foreign exchange have been modified and liberalized so as to simplify foreign trade. Government hopes that the FEMA will make favourable development in the foreign money market.
India aims to increase India’s export of merchandise and services from US $ 465 bn. in 2013-14 to approximately US$ 900 bn. by the 2019-20 and to raise India’s share in the world export from 2% to 3.5%. Commerce and Industry minister Nirmala Sita Raman unveiled foreign trade policy (FTP) 2015 -20, which seek to provide higher incentive to agriculture industry. FTP also seeks to establish an institutional framework to work with state governments to boost India’s exports.
Prior to the First World War the whole world was having gold standard under which the currency in circulation was allowed to get converted either in gold or other currencies based on the gold standard. But after the failure of Bretton woods system in 1971 this system changed. Presently convertibility of money implies a system where a country’s currency becomes convertible in foreign exchange and vice versa. Since 1994, Indian rupee has been made fully convertible in current account transactions.
Balance of Payment (BOP) of ac country can be defined as a systematic statement of all economic transactions of a country with the rest of the world during a specific period usually one year. The systematic accounting is done on the basis of double entry book keeping (both sides of transactions credit and debit are included). Economic transaction includes all such transactions that involve the transfer of title or ownership of goods and services, money and assets.