The architecture of the Sultanate Period manifested the aesthetic heritage of new sultans which include both religious and secular structures i.e. Indo-Islamic architecture. For Example- The dome is the prominent feature of the mosque in contrast to the Sikhar of Hindu temples. Here, we are giving an account of the architectural landmarks of the Sultanate period in which we have covered the name of builder, location and the characteristics of architecture.
The Sultans of Delhi Sultanate were a perfect autocrat and their real source of authority was military strength. They were commander of forces, chief lawgiver and the final of the court of appeal. Here, we are giving a complete summary of the Military reforms under the Delhi Sultanate for the aspirants of different competitive exams.
The Ilbary Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate was the first Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate and the various historians designated as the Slave Dynasty or the Mameluq Dynasty or the Ilbari Dynasty. Here, we are giving a complete Summary on the Ilbary Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate which can be used as revision capsule by the aspirants of different competitive examinations.
The Sultanate period was militaristic and aristocratic, and moreover the real source of the sultan’s authority was military strength. The rulers of Delhi Sultanate knew the importance of agriculture and open to promote through technological assistance because food grain was the most important item of internal trade while they exported slaves, indigo, opium, spices and cotton goods. Here, we are giving the list of Administrative and Agrarian Terms used in Sultanate Period, which is very useful study material for the academic purposes as well as for those who are preparing for the competitive exams.
Art and architecture which was a combination of Arabic and Indian styles that took a new direction in the Delhi Sultanate period. It witnesses the evolution and development of Indo-Islamic Architecture by synthesising geometrical shapes, calligraphy, inscriptional art etc. This Indo-Islamic architecture manifested the aesthetic heritage of the new sultans that includes both religious and secular structures.
Mahmud was the son of Subuktigin and his policy of conquest brought him in India just like his father who had extended his kingdom beyond the Indus after a reign of 20 years. He was a brilliant general and a mighty conqueror. He led as many as 17 expeditions into India during the years 1000-1206. Out of these the one against the temple of Somnath in 1025 AD was the most important as it gave Mahmud a vast treasure.
The emergence of the Chola power from obscurity, its rise to an important position and its conflicts, first with the Rashtrakutas from beyond the Tungabhadra and later with their successor, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, form the dominant features of the history of South India in the period 850 AD- 1200 AD. Here, we are giving the brief outline of the places which are associated with the Chola Administration.
The emergence of Rajputs was the outcomes of the death of Harshavardhana and the breakup of Pratihara Empire. They dominated the Indian political scene nearly 500 years from the 7th century. They belong to the patrilineal clans of the Indian subcontinent. They rule over Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar as warriors, entrepreneurs, and zamindar (land owners).
Medieval History of Bihar is commemorated with the foreign invasion and dynasty that ruined the glory Bihar. Bihar was ruled directly or indirectly by Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Noohani Dynasty, Cher Dynasty, Bhojpur’s Ujjaini Dynasty, Sur Dynasty and Mughal Dynasty.
As we all know that 350 years ago Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal for his favourite wife Mumtaz Mahal. Similarly, Faizul Hasan Qadri a retired 80 years old post master from Kaser Kalan village around 50 km from Bulandshahr distt, Western Uttar Pradesh is building a replica of the heritage in memory of his late ‘Begum’ as ‘mini Taj’.
The term Sufi derived from Arabic word Safa which has two distinct meaning - One who wear woollen clothes; and Symbolises purity and sacredness. The Sufi Mysticism is associated with the liberal interpretation of Quran called Tarikat. Shariat is the conservative interpretation of Quran. It is believes that Haq (God) and Khalaq (Soul) are the same.
The origin of the word “Rupee” is from Sanskrit word Rupya which means shaped, stamped, impressed, coin and also from the Sanskrit word “raupya” which means silver. There was a long history of struggle, exploration and wealth which can be traced back to the ancient India of the 6th Century BC regarding rupee. The Paper Currency Act of 1861 gave the Government the monopoly of note issued throughout the vast expanse of British India.
The Great Living Chola Temples were built by kings of the Chola Empire, which stretched over all of south India and the neighbouring islands. The site includes three great 11th- and 12th-century Temples: Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur.
The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur who was descended of the Timur from father side and Genghis Khan from mother side. Here is the list of the Great Mughal Emperors of India which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
The “History of Medieval India” is a complete GK study material of remarkable civilisations, along with various kinds of intellectual and social evolutionary traits marking that era. So, it would not only help the students of 6th to 12th class or undergraduates but also those who are preparing for competitive exams.
After the victory of Babur in the war of Panipat in 1526, the Mughal dynasty was established. The rule of Mughal Dynasty from the 16th to 18th century extensively displays art forms, architectural styles that developed vigorously around that time.
The mughal empire was divided into "Subas" which were further subdivided into "Sarkar","Pargana", and "Gram". There were 15 Subas (provinces) durng Akbar's reigns, which later increased to 20 under the Auranzeb's reign.
The first half of the 16th century witnessed the Afghan- Mughal contest for power in the Sub-continent. After defeating Humayun, Sher Shah Suri emerged as a powerful Pashtun Afghan ruler and established the Sur Empire. The Empire’s strength lay in the great administrative capacity and reforms of the ruler, aimed at the benefit of people. The Empire boasts of extremely well thought of governmental systems and policies as well as great architectural marvels.
The Bahmani Kingdom was founded by Alauddin Bahman Shah in the 1347 AD. With its capital at Gulbarga and later Bidar a total of eighteen Sultans ruled over this kingdom. Often at war with the neighboring Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara, the Bahamanis disintegrated into independent sultanates called Deccan sultanates after the attack of Krishnadeva Raya and the death of the great Wazir of Bahmani Sultanate Mahmud Gawan.
From the ancient times, India was famous as the fanatical land and was called golden sparrow. Its wealth and huge population always attracted foreigners. Although the Arabs did not rule for a very long time yet they are called the bridge connectors for India and rest of the world, mainly Europe. Arab’s were conquering the world, starting from Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Persia while India was struggling with the unstable kingdom of Hindu’s. Harshvardan was the last Hindu emperor and his death brought political instability in India.
The Lohara Dynasty (1003-1171 AD) came after Utpala Dynasty in the region of Kashmir. After the suicide of Utpala, Paravgupta (950-958 AD), the scheming clerk, he was designated the title of king for a year. He was succeeded by his son Kshemagupta, a lecherous person who married princess Didda of Lohara.
Kashmir has a distinct history from the other states of India. Art work, unique temples and monuments were the main attractions. The Kashmir region also grew economically despite of harsh weather conditions. The famous tales of Panchtantra were written in 14th century. The Sanskrit language reached to a greater height. The people became highly qualified. This is the golden era in the Kashmir valley.
When the Karkota Dynasty was on the verge of collapsing as it was both politically and economically weak, it gave the way to Utpala Dynasty to rise up. In the time of later Karkotas, the kingdom had suffered greatly from political and economical troubles. All the efforts were exhausted in making kingdom strong and united. Later on the situation was controlled. Brahmans were granted special benefits and new temples were constructed. Soon the dynasty came to an end in 939AD after the death of Gopalavarman.
The history of Kashmir begins with the Karkota Dynasty. Before that the valley of Kashmir was ruled by Ashoka the Great, the Mauryan Empire. The strongest ruler of the dynasty was Lalitaditya. Some of the main conquests he made were up to Bengal that made Kashmir the most powerful kingdom after the time of The Guptas. The Martand temple in the Anantnag district of today’s Kashmir preserves the memory of King Lalitaditya.
Modern Bundelkhand was known as Jejakabhukti during 10th and 11th century and was ruled by Chandellas. These Rajput emperors were fond of art and culture and the temples of Khajrao (Madhya Pradesh) were built during this time. Chandellas had maternal relations with Kalachuris. Kalinjar, Mahotsavanagar and Khajrao were the important cities of this dynasty. The fields of art and architecture flourished during the rule of Chandellas. The Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage site by UNESCO.
The Kalachuri dynasty consists of two kingdoms, one ruling over the Central India (Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Malwa, and Maharashtra) called “Chedi”, and the other Haihaya ruled over Southern India (Karnataka).The time period was from 10-12th century. The Kalachuri’s were ancient people from epics and Puranas. The Kalachuri’s of Chedi are also known as Kings of Dahalas, capital of Tripura, 6 kilometres away from Jubbulpore (modern Jabalpur).
Rajput’s are regarded as the brave and courageous fighters in the history of India. The Rajputs are known for their pride, at that time they were strong enough to think of themselves as self-sufficient rulers. The Chauhan dynasty ruled Shakambari region in 11th century, it was a politically strong dynasty known for its policies. The great Rajputs were the kings of Chauhan dynasty known for their bravery and loyalty. It originally belonged to Agnivanshi Clan (descendants of the Fire God).
The Gahadavals of Kannauj ruled North India in the mid of 11th century till the mid of 13th century AD. The origin of this family is Banaras (Varanasi) and Oudh (Ayodhaya) in Utter Pradesh. The Gahadaval kingdom expanded till Delhi and moved eastward to Patna and Munjar areas of Bihar. During the time of Govinchandra, this dynasty reached the summit of its power. The weakness of this ruling was exposed late in the 12th century AD during the invasions of Muhammad of Ghur.
The Sena Empire, a Hindu dynasty, ruled from Bengal from the 11th to 12th centuries. The Sena rulers merged the caste framework in Bengal. Albeit Bengal acquired from the standing arrangement of Mithila, position was not all that solid in Bengal as in Mithila. The Sena administration is acclaimed for building Hindu temples and religious communities, which incorporate the prestigious Dhakeshwari Temple in what is presently Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Kashmir, the line additionally likely fabricated a temple, which is credited to a Gaureshwara or Ballala Sena.
During 730 AD, Yashovarman set up a kingdom at Kannauj. His invasion of Gauda (Bengal) formed the context of the Prakrit poem Gaudavaho (Slaying of the ruler of Gauda), made by his courtier Vakapatiraja in the eighth century. After Yashovarman, three rulers, Vijrayudha, Indrayudha and Chakrayudha, ruled over Kannauj between close of the eighth century till the 820AD. Towards the successor's end of Nagabhata II, effectively assaulted Kannauj and set up control there.