Reserve Bank of India is the Central Bank of our country. It was established on 1st April 1935 under the RBI Act of 1934. It holds the apex position in the banking structure. RBI performs various developmental and promotional functions. As of now 26 public sector banks in India out of which 21 are Nationalised banks and 5 are State Bank of India and its associate banks. There are total 92 commercial banks in India. Public sector banks hold near about 75% of the total bank deposits in India.
At present, the size of Indian economy has grown more than $ 2 trillion and tagged as the highest growing economy in the world. The richest Indian state is Maharashtra, whose State Gross Domestic Product (SGDP) is $ 380 billion which is equal to Norway’s economy. The second richest Indian state is Tamil Nadu whose SGDP is $ 208 billion which is followed by Karnataka (SGDP $ 190 billion).
As per the website of RBI, there are 31 state Co-operative banks, 370 central Co-operative banks and 81 commercial banks (20 government and 61 private) working in India. Banking regulation act, 1949 is completely applicable to all the commercial banks of India while Co-operative banks are partially obliged to follow this act.
The government has increased their basic salaries by more than twice. Urjit Patel's basic salary has been increased to Rs. 2.5 lakh and Deputy Governor’s salary has been increased to Rs. 2.25 lakh. This change is effective from January 1, 2016. Prior to this increase, the basic salary of the Governor of the Reserve Bank was Rs.90.000 per month.
In the presence of parallel economy and lesser life of the paper currency notes, the Reserve Bank of India has decided to circulate plastic notes of Rs. 10 denomination in the five cities i.e. Mysore, Kochi, Jaipur, Shimla and Bhubneshwar on trial basis.
‘Budget’ is a systematic list of items of revenue and expenditure of the government of a defined duration or we can say it’s a plan for the income and expenditure of the government for the present, past and future financial years.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India is the regulatory body for dealing with all matters related to the development and regulation of securities market in India. It was established on 12th of April in 1988. It is headquartered in Mumbai. SEBI was declared a constitutional body in 1992. At present, Ajay Tyagi is the Chairperson of SEBI.
The Government of India had stated in the budget of 2017-18 that the total income of the government was Rs.21,46,735 cr. while fiscal deficit amounted to Rs. 5,46,532. Government of India receives maximum revenue from Borrowing and other Liabilities (19% of total revenue) while the share of states in taxes and fees (24% of the total expenditure)is the largest item of expenditure.
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the supreme monetary authority of India. This organization is responsible for printing of currency notes and managing the supply of money in the Indian economy. RBI works as a custodian of foreign reserve, banker’s bank, banker to the government of India and controller of credit.
A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an investment by foreign investors in the foreign based company. Mainly there are two types of FDI, one is Green Field Investment (a fresh company is established in a foreign country) and the other is Portfolio Investment (shares of a foreign company are purchased or ownership acquired in a foreign company).
The Union Budget of India, which is known also as the ‘Annual financial statement’ in the Article 112 of the Indian Constitution. The first Union budget of independent India was presented by R. K. Shanmukham Chetty on November 26, 1947. Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and former finance minister Yashwant Sinha are the only two leaders who presented the Union Budget of India 5 times consecutively.
As we all know, Fraud cases are increasing day by day via internet banking or we can say it as cyber crime which is done by means of computer or internet. Through this article I am making you aware that while using debit card make sure that you will follow these 5 safe measures to keep your account from getting hacked.
PM Modi announced a decisive war against black money and also corruption by demonetising notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 which will be no longer legal. So, let us have a look on the benefits of this scheme, how it will be beneficial and also some drawbacks.
PM Modi’s announcement regarding the ban on Rs 500 and 1000 Notes has come as a surprise for all of us. But, this is not the first time that the Indian government has taken such a bold step to tackle the menace of black money. We list down the earlier instance, when the government has demonetized high-value currency.
Devaluation of Indian Rupee taken place 3 times since 1947. At the time of independence, one can buy a dollar with one Indian rupee but today you have to spend 66 rupees to buy a dollar. Devaluation means reduction in the external value of the domestic currency.
The Minister of Finance (or simply, finance minister) is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India. The finance minister is responsible for the fiscal policy of the government. The Finance Minister presents the annual Union Budget (article 112) in Parliament. The first finance minister of independent India was R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, who also presented its first Budget.
In banking sector, there are 3 types of banks i.e. Public sector Banks, Private sector Banks and Foreign sector banks. In private sector Banks; the Banks are owned through either an individual or with limited partners and these types of banks are not incorporated. HDFC (Housing and Development Finance Corporation) is the biggest bank of India in terms of market capitalization followed by axis bank and ICICI Bank.
Stock exchanges are the place where investors buy and sell the shares in the companies. As of now there are 23 SEBI approved stock exchanges in the country. Stock market is managed and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
A commodities exchange is an exchange where various commodities and derivatives products are traded. Most commodity markets across the world trade in agricultural products and contracts based on them. These contracts can include spot prices, forwards, futures and options on futures.
There are so many financial companies established in India to absorb the saving of household sector. Government mobilizes this small saving in the economy through these financial institutions. These major and small institutions play the same role in the economy as the blood in the human body. Some examples of these financial institutions are RBI, SEBI, IDBI, EXIM Bank and Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC).
Speaking at the Indian Banks’ Association’s annual general meeting, Arun Jaitley said that “The government is looking to reduce its stake in State-run banks to 52 per cent to make them more professional and independent.” At present, the government owns over 59 per cent stake in State Bank of India, the country’s largest public sector lender, 81.5 per cent in Central Bank of India, 71.7per cent in IDBI Bank.
Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited (SPMCIL) is a Miniratna Category-I CPSE, and wholly owned Schedule ‘A’ Company of Government of India, is engaged in the manufacturing of security papers, minting of coins, printing of bank notes, non-judicial stamp papers, postage stamps and travel documents, etc.
Fiscal policy deals with the taxation and expenditure decisions of the government. Some of the major instruments of fiscal policy are as follows: Budget, Taxation, Public Expenditure, public revenue, Public Debt, and Fiscal Deficit in the economy.
Basel III or Basel 3 released in December, 2010 is the third in the series of Basel Accords. These accords deal with risk management aspects for the banking sector. These Norms to be partially implemented from March 31, 2015 in phases and would be fully implemented as on March 31, 2018.
The financial system enables lenders and borrowers to exchange funds. India has a financial system that is controlled by independent regulators in the sectors of insurance, banking, capital markets and various services sectors.
Financial instruments are tradable assets of any kind. They can be cash, evidence of an ownership interest in an entity, or a contractual right to receive or deliver cash or another financial instrument. Documents such as Treasury Bills,Certificate of Deposits,Commercial Paper (CP) and Hybrid Instruments comes under this category.
Reserve bank of India defines NBFC-MFI as a non-deposit taking NBFC (other than a company licensed under Section 25 of the Indian Companies Act, 1956) with Minimum Net Owned Funds of Rs.5 crore (for NBFC-MFIs registered in the North Eastern Region of the country, it will be Rs. 2 crore) and having not less than 85% of its net assets as “qualifying assets”. Ultimate goal of microfinance is to give low income people an opportunity to become self-sufficient by providing a means of saving money, borrowing money and insurance.
India's external debt stock stood at US$ 475.8 billion at end-March 2015 as against US$ 446.3 billion at end-March 2014. Notwithstanding the increasing external debt stock during 2014-15, crucial debt indicators such as external debt-GDP ratio and debt service ratio remained in the comfort zone. External debt of the country continues to be dominated by the long term borrowings. Government arranges money from deficit financing (borrowing from general public, printing new currency and borrowing from external sources) if its expenditure exceeds revenue.
India has a well-developed tax structure with clearly demarcated authority between Central and State Governments and local bodies. Central Government levies some direct and indirect taxes on individual and commodities respectively. Direct taxes are, Personal Income Tax, Wealth Tax, and Corporation Tax while indirect tax includes; Sales Tax, Excise Duty, Custom Duty and Service Tax. Currently corporation tax (20% of total tax collection) is the biggest source of income of central government.
Supplying the money in the market is the sole responsibility of the central bank of the country (Reserve Bank of India in case of India). RBI prints the currency and supplies money in the economy. Coins are minted by the Ministry of Finance but circulated by the RBI in the whole country. Supply of money decides the rate of inflation in the economy. If supply of money increases in the economy then inflation starts rising and vice versa.