The first half of the 16th century witnessed the Afghan- Mughal contest for power in the Sub-continent. After defeating Humayun, Sher Shah Suri emerged as a powerful Pashtun Afghan ruler and established the Sur Empire. The Empire’s strength lay in the great administrative capacity and reforms of the ruler, aimed at the benefit of people. The Empire boasts of extremely well thought of governmental systems and policies as well as great architectural marvels.
Mughal ruler such as Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir were known to spread cultural development in our country. The maximum works in this field was done during Mughal rule. Mughal rulers were fond of culture; therefore all were in the support of spreading education. The Mughal traditions highly influenced the palaces and forts of many regional and local kingdoms.
Babur was born on February 14, 1483, in Fergana which is now in Uzbekistan. Emperor Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire in India. His name was derived from Persian language, "Babur "which means lion. Babur was a successor of Tamerlane from his father's side and Genghis Khan from his mother's side. He died December 26, 1530 in Agra.
Aurangzeb ascended the throne in 1659 A.D. after a long and bitter struggle with his father and three brothers. In all, Aurangzeb’s Empire comprises of 21 provinces, covering a geographical spread from Afghanistan in the northwest to the eastern extremity of Bengal in the east and from Kashmir in the north to the Carnatic in the south.
The Fifth Mughal Emperor of India was Shah Jahan, and was considered as the best Mughal emperor. He was extremely anxious to enlarge his enormous kingdom. Shah Jahan was restricted via his child and heir Aurangzeb in Agra Fort, in 1658, when he fell sick.
His approach towards non - Muslims was less liberal, as he was an Orthodox Muslim, as compared with the behaviour of his father and grandfather Jahangir and Akbar, respectively, towards Non - Muslims.
After a long and patient wait and with the blessings of the great Sufi saint Mohammad Salim Chishti, Jalaud din Akbar was blessed with his son from his wife Mariam- uz Zamani, in 1569. In honor of the Sufi saint Akbar built the famous Chishti dargah at Fatehpur Sikri. Jahangir’s full name at the time of his birth was Nur ud din Mohammad Salim. Jahangir was the royal title bestowed on him which meant “conqueror of the world”.
Ibrahim Lodhi an Afghan by blood was the last leader of the Lodhi administration. He succeeded his dad Sikander Lodhi yet couldn't coordinate his capacity as a ruler. He was crushed by Babur in the battle of Panipat which saw the end of Delhi Sultanate and the start of the Mughal rule. He was born in 1480 AD. His rule continued from 1517- 1526 AD. He died in 1526 AD and was succeeded by Babur.
Humayun was born on 27th January 1508. After Babur's death, he ascended the throne of Mughal Empire. Quickly after his accession, Humayun gained various enemies like Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, Sher Khan of Bihar. At last he was expelled by Sher Khan.
Humayun fled to Persia and took political shelter there. He then recaptured his position in Delhi in 1555 after the breaking down of the Pathans. Yet, of his ill luck, he died in 1556, due to an accident.
The advent of the Mughal rule in India bought in rich cultural and ethical changes. The history of Akbar dates down to the 16th century AD. He ruled India from 1556 to 1605 AD. He was the son of Himayun the Great, who ruled over India for good 26 years. At large the Mughals surely came to annex India under Babur, but they were unlike other cruel rulers who plundered India. The Mughals In fact helped India to flourish under their kingship.