The Environment is our basic life support system which provides the air for breathing, the water for drinking, the food for eating and the land for a living. It is collectively portrayed all the external forces and conditions, which influences the life, nature, growth and maturity of living organism, whereas ‘Ecology’ is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Noise pollution or noise disturbance is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains.
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance.
Solid waste management refers to the supervised handling of waste material from generation at the source through the recovery processes to disposal.
There are various types of forests are found in the Indian subcontinent. basically, there are 6 major groups, namely, Moist Tropical, Dry Tropical, Montane Sub Tropical, Montane Temperate, Sub Alpine, and Alpine, further subdivided into 16 major types of forests. Evidently, India has a diverse range of forests: from the rainforest of Kerala in the south to the alpine pastures of Ladakh in the north, from the deserts of Rajasthan in the west to the evergreen forests in the northeast.
A renewable resource is an organic natural resource which can replenish to overcome usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. Example: forests resources, water resources, mineral resources, Air resources etc.
Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include, air, water, soil, minerals, along with the climate and solar energy, which form the non-living or ‘Abiotic’ part of nature. The ‘Biotic’ or living parts of nature consist of plants and animals, including microbes. From the standpoint of Physical Geography, the Earth can be seen to be composed of four principal components: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, and Hydrosphere.
Energy exists freely in nature. Some of them exist infinitely (never run out, called RENEWABLE), the rest have finite amounts (they took millions of years to form, and will run out one day, called Non-Renewable). Non-Renewable Energy is energy from fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, natural gas) and uranium. Fossil fuels are mainly made up of Carbon.
Due to the existence of the gases in the atmosphere, the life on the planet Earth could be possible. Carbon dioxide gives life to the plants/trees and plants and trees gives life to human beings. In this way both are interdependent on each other. In the presence of sunlight, plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through their leaves. The plants combine carbon dioxide with water, which is absorbed by their roots from the soil.
Biodiversity is the varied and differences among living organisms of terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes associated with them. India has great diversity in its geo-climatic conditions. Thus, there is great diversity in India's forest, wetlands, mangroves wildlife and marine areas. The richness in fauna and flora makes it as one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries of the world.