Arrival of the British and the establishment of East India Company was the outcome of the Portuguese traders who earn enormous profit by selling their merchandise in India.The East India Company was formed 1599 through the royal charter from Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600 AD authorizing it to trade in the East.
The French East India Company was formed in 1664 AD during the reign of King Louis XIV to trade with India. In 1668 AD the French established their first factory at Surat and in 1669 AD established another French factory at Masaulipatam.
The people of Holland (present Netherlands) are called the Dutch. Next to the Portuguese, the Dutch set their feet in India.In 1602, the United East India Company of the Netherlands was formed and given permission by the Dutch government to trade in the East Indies including India.
Portuguese were the first European who discovered a direct sea route to India. Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut an important sea port located on the South-West India on May 20, 1498 AD.
The Jats came into existence in the seventeenth century, when they formed a powerful kingdom at Bharatpur after rebelled against the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Suraj Mal was the only Jat leader who welded the scattered Jats in one powerful state.
History of Hyderabad was established under the variety of kingdom. For example- the Chalukya kingdom, whose feudal chieftains, the Kakatiyas, in 1321 AD, the Sultanate of Delhi under the command of Muhammad bin Tughluq, Bahmani Sultanate, the Masunuri Nayakas, the Vijayanagara , Nizam and British.
Shujauddin Khan, Sarfaraz Khan, Alivardi Khan, Siraj-ud-daula, Mir Qasim were the successor Diwan after Murshid Quil Khan. Murshid Quli Khan and his successor nawabs administered Bengal, Bihar and Odisha as independent rulers though they continued to send revenue to the Mughal emperor regularly.
Awadh was historic region of northern India, now constituting the north-eastern portion of Uttar Pradesh state. Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk, Safdar Jung/ Adbdul Mansur, Shuja-ud-daula, Asaf-ud-daula, and Wajid Ali Shah were the Nawabs of Awadh State.
After the decline of Vijayanagar Empire, Mysore became independent state under the Hindu Wodeyar Dynasty in AD 1565. In 1761, Hyder Ali overthrew the regaining dynasty in Mysore and established his own control over that state that was succeeded by Tipu Sultan in 1782.
The principal Rajput States or Provinces were Mewar (Udaipur) Marwar (Jodhpur) and Amber (Jaipur) who were alienated from the Mughal Empire due to the religious and administrative policies of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
The Punjab was one of the regional states which was rise after the decline of Mughal Empire. By the end of the 18th century, the Maharaja Ranjit Singh united the misls and established a powerful state.