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General Knowledge for Competitive Exams

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Computer insecurity

Most current real-world computer security efforts focus on external threats, and generally treat the computer system itself as a trusted system.


Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme. The world’s major ecosystem types and landscapes are represented in this network.


Realising the deteriorating air and water quality, increasing vehicular emission and higher noise level, the Ministry adopted a policy for abatement of pollution which provides multi-pronged strategies in the form of regulation, legislations, agreements, fiscal incentive and other measures.


Scientific and technological activities in India are carried out under a wide set-up consisting of Central government, State governments, higher educational sector, public and private sector industry and non-profit institutions/associations.


With the ratification of the UN Convention on Law of the Sea, a new international order has been established for the oceans. India is represented in almost all the important bodies on oceans.


India has limited uranium but vast thorium reserves which are one of the world’s largest. The Indian Nuclear Power Programme is geared towards using these reserves.


The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR); Indian Council of Agricultural Research ICAR); Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Electronics, Department of Space, Department of Ocean Development, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources and the Ministry of Science and Technology.


The Indian space programme began in the 1960s with the launch of modest Rohni Sounding rockets for scientific investigations over the geo-magnetic equator passing over Thumba near Thiruvanthapuram. Since then, India has achieved self-reliance in Satellite Launch vehicle programme with the operationalisation of polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) for launching satellites in polar orbits and Geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) for launching satellites in Geosynchronous transfer orbits.


The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system has the world’s largest constellation of remote sensing satellites in operation today. There are 10 remote Sensing Satellites in operation – OCEANSAT-2, RESAT-2, CARTOSAT-2A, IMS-1, CARTOSAT-2, CARTOSAT-1, RESOURCESAT-1, OCEANSAT-1, IRS- 1D and technology experiment satellite (TES).


The Indian National satellite Unite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the ASIA – Pacific region.


Indian Information Technology and IT enabled serives (ITES-BOP) continue to chart remarkable growth. The Indian software and services export is estimated at Rs. 103200 crore (US $23.4 billion) in 2005-06, as compared to Rs. 80180 crore (US$ 17.7 billion) in 2004-05, an increase of 32 per cent in dollar terms.


The Indian space Programme began in 1962. In 1969 the Indian space Research Organizatiion (ISRO) was set up with headquarters in Banglore for the purpose of rapid development in space technology and its application.


With the advent of recombinant DNA technique and understanding at the cellular and molecular level of the structure and function, it is now possible to harness the genetic diversity in the living organisms for the manufacture of useful products and production of novel microbes, plants and animals with improved qualities. The Department of Biotechnology, under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 has promoted and accelerated the pace of development of biotechnology in the country.


With the enactment of the Atomic Energy Bill in 1948, India had planned to harness the atomic energy for peaceful purposes, almost fifty years ago. The Atomic Energy Commission was established on 10 August 1948 with Dr Homi J Bhabha as its chairman. Subsequently in 1954, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was established.

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