At present, Constitution of India comprises of 448 articles in 25 parts & 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 100 amendments. Originally our constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is observed that questions based on the Indian constitution are always asked in many competitive exams like UPSC/PSC/SSC/CDS etc. So to cater these exams we made a list of important articles in this topic.
Articles from 153 to 167 in Part VI of the constitution deal with the state executive. The state executive consists of the Governor, the Chief Minister the Council of Ministers and the Advocate General of the State. The post of the Governor at the state level is like the President at the centre.
The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on January 28, 1950. It succeeded the Federal Court of India and established under the Government of India Act, 1935. Articles from 124 to 147 in Part V of the constitution deal with the organization, independence, jurisdiction, powers procedures of the Supreme Court. At present Supreme Court has 31 judges including the Chief Justice of India.
The British Governement made a number of legislations to run the country as per their convenience. The main obejctives behind all such legislations were to exploit the resources of India and to stop the rebellions from protesting against such open loot of resources. This article deals with some of such immoral and unethical legislations.
Indian Constitution has provided so many laws to the general public for the protection of their rights. But unfortunately many people are not aware of them hence they face many difficulties in their day to day life. This article covered some basic laws like Motor Vehicle Act 1988, section -185 202, Criminal Procedure Code, Section 46 etc.
The Parliament of India is comprises of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and President of India. Article 79 of the Indian constitution says that India will have a parliament for making laws to run the democratic set up of the country.
Members of Parliament are representative of public to put their problems in front of the leaders of the country. But recent disruption during winter session of the parliament caused the loss of Rs. 144 crore or Rs. 2.5 lakhs/minute to the exchequer. So this wastage of public money raised a serious question on the functioning of the parliament.
Bills introduced in the Parliament are of two kinds: public bills and private bills (also known as government bills and private members’ bills respectively). Though both are governed by the same general procedure and pass through the same stages in the House.
The parliamentary system in India taken from the British constitution. The council of ministers is lead by the prime minister, who is the real executive authority of the Indian political system. Article 74 of our constitution deals with the status of the council of ministers while article 75 deals with the appointment, tenure, responsibility, oath, qualification, allowances and salaries of the ministers.
The emergency provisions are contained in part XVIII of the constitution, from articles 352 to 360. National Emergency is mentioned in the article 352 and president’s rule is mentioned in article 356 of the Indian constitution. National Emergency can be proclaimed only when country is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion.
Supreme Court is the apex court in India which came into existence on 26th January, 1950 and is located on Tilak Marg, New Delhi. It is a Constitutional body which is laid down in Part V of the Chapter V of the Constitution of India from Articles 124 to 147. It consists of Chief justice of India and 30 other Judges designated by the President of India and the retirement age of Supreme Court Judges is 65 years. Here are some interesting facts related to Supreme Court of India.
Uniform Civil Code is defined in our Constitution under Article 44 which states that it is the duty of the state to secure for the citizens a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India. As, Uniform Civil Code would put in place a set of laws to govern personal matters of all citizens irrespective of religion is perhaps the need of the hour and ensuring that their fundamental and Constitutional rights are protected.
A bill is a draft legislative proposal before the house. It becomes an act only when passed by both the houses of parliament and assented to by the president. While the term `motion' in parliamentary parlance means any formal proposal made to the house by a member for the purpose of eliciting a decision of the house.
Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of the adult suffrage. The maximum strength of the house envisaged by the constitution is 552, which is made up by election of up to 530 members to represent the states, up to 20 members to represent the union territories.
To avoid confrontation of any kind, there is a clear cut division of financial relation between the centre and the state. The Union Parliament levies taxes on items mentioned in the union list while the state legislatures levy taxes on items mentioned in the state list. Articles 268 to 293 are related to centre-state financial relations.
India has very diverse multi party political system. There are three types of political parties in India i.e. National Parties (6), state recognized parties (48) and unrecognized parties (1706). All the political parties which wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India (ECI).
The Constitution deals with the citizenship from Articles 5 to 11 under Part II. However, it contains neither any permanent nor any elaborate provisions in this regard. It only identifies the persons who became citizens of India at its commencement (i.e., on January 26, 1950).
Articles 245 to 255 in Part XI of the Constitution deal with the legislative relations between the Centre and the states. Centre and the states are supreme in their respective fields, the maximum harmony and coordination between them is essential for the effective operation of the federal system.
Unitary Features of constitution make a centralized government. It is a government in which all powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency. A unitary system is governed constitutionally as one single unit. All power is top down. A unitary state is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme.
Unitary government is one in which all the powers are inherited in the national government and the regional governments (if at all exist), derive their authority from the national government. While a federal government is one in which powers are divided between the national government and the regional governments by the Constitution.
A unitary government is one in which all the powers are vested in the national government and the regional governments. A federal government, on the other hand, is one in which powers are divided between the national government and the regional governments by the Constitution itself and both operate in their respective jurisdictions independently.
The parliament of India provides a parliamentary system of government, at both centre and state level. Articles 74 & 75 deal with the parliamentary system at the centre and articles 163 & 164 in the states. President is the nominal executive while the prime minister is the real executive of the country.
Article 368 in Part XX of the Indian Constitution deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure. It states that the Parliament may, in exercise of its constituent power, add/remove an article, variation or repeal any provision of the Constitution. But not change can be done in the basic structure of the constitution.
Directive Principles of State Policy are enumerated in part IV of the constitution from article 36 to 51. The father of Indian constitution took these DPSPs from the constitution of Ireland. Dr Ambedkar called these principles as the “Novel Features” of the Indian constitution.
Fundamental rights are enshrined in part III of the constitution from article 12 to 35. These rights are taken from the constitution of USA. These rights are provided to all the citizens of the country without any discrimination. These rights made the part III of the Indian constitution as the Magna-Carta of India
Fundamental Rights are justifiable and enforceable rights while directive principles are non -justifiable and cannot override fundamental rights. Fundamental rights provide political rights whereas social and economic rights are provided through DPSP.
The American constitution was the first to begin with a preamble. The preamble refers to the introduction or preface to the constitution. The preamble of the constitution is based on the “objectives resolution”, drafted and moved by the Pandit Nehru, and adopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949.
World's lengthiest written constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement. Now Constitution of India has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules. There are 101 amendments have been made in the Indian constitution uptp 2016.
Narendra Modi was born on September 17, 1950 in the town of Vadnagar, Gujarat in India. He joined Bharatiya Janata Party in 1987. In October 2001, he was appointed as the Chief Minister of Gujarat and finally in 2014, he was elected as the Prime Minister of India. Since 2014 till Sep 2016 approx he has visited 43 countries, covering six continents and 52 foreign trips. Details of his foreign trips are provided in this article.
Article 110 of the Indian constitution deals with the definition of money bill. A bill deemed to be money bill if it contains “only provisions dealing with imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax”. An Ordinary Bill can be introduced in any of the Houses of Parliament while money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha.