Conservation of Wildlife is necessary to recognize the importance of nature and other wildlife species. It is important to protect the endangered plants and animal species along with their natural habitat. The main concern is to preserve the habitats so that the future generations of wildlife and even humans can enjoy it. This article deals with the steps required for the conservation of Wildlife.
The distribution of animal is an important area of study in Environment & Ecology as well as Zoogeography which deals with the fauna characteristics, classification, spatial distribution, association, and migration of different species of animals. Here, we are giving the list of Regional distribution of the Wild Animal around the World which will helps the aspirant in strengthening the knowledge of aspirants who are preparing for the examinations like UPSC, State Services, IBPS, SBI, SCC, Railways etc.
The Environment is our basic life support system which provides the air for breathing, the water for drinking, the food for eating and the land for a living. It is collectively portrayed all the external forces and conditions, which influences the life, nature, growth and maturity of living organism, whereas ‘Ecology’ is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) also known as the Indian antelope. The blackbuck is the sole extant member of the genus Antilope. It stands up to 74 to 84 cm in height. Males weigh 20–57 kilograms while females are lighter, weighing 20–33 kilograms on an average. It can run at the speed of 50 kms/hr. Its life span is 10 to 15 years. IUCN tagged the blackbuck as Near Threatened.
The IUCN Red List (founded in 1964) is the world’s most authentic source of information on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species and their links to livelihoods within the territory of the state or country. Far more than a list of species and their status, it is a powerful tool to inform and catalyse action for biodiversity conservation and policy change - critical to protecting the natural resources we need to survive.
India has added 15 more species to the “Red List” of threatened species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 2014. But the country has climbed down a spot to the seventh position. By the year-end, India had 988 threatened species on the list, which lists critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable species. In 2013, the number was 973. With 659 species in 2008, the increase over seven years is 50 per cent.
Ten species of birds seen in India have been tagged critically endangered by the International Union for Conversation of Nature (IUCN) for 2015. The list of endangered birds includes Great Siberian Crane, Indian Bustard, White backed Vulture and Red-headed Vulture, Forest Owlet, Spoon Billed Sandpiper,White Bellied Heron etc. The main reasons behind the decline in the population of these birds include loss, modification, fragmentation and degradation of habitat, environmental contaminants, poaching and land use changes.
The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), are also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane. Siberian crane are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population migrates in Iran, India and Nepal during winter. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations.
The snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia) is a large cat inhabitant of mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as endangered species in the IUCN Red List. The global population of these leopards was estimated at 4,080–6,590 adults in 2013, of which fewer than 2,500 individuals may reproduce in the wild. These leopards are able to jump as far as 50 feet (15 meters).
There are two types of Yak: domestic and wild. Domestic Yak are smaller, have a less shaggy coat, and probably originated from wild Tibetan Yak. Domestic Yaks are used for travel and as draft animals. Yaks are valuable for their milk, meat, wool, and dung. The wild Yak is threatened by loss of habitat and over hunting. Their current status is “vulnerable.” The male wild Yak can weigh up to 2200 pounds and is 6.5 feet high at the shoulder.
The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) are found in the forest canopy in the mountains of Nepal, India, Bhutan, China, Laos and Myanmar. As clear from their name, red pandas are red, and have white and black markings. Their legs and bellies are black. Their tails are ringed. They even have fur on the soles of their feet, which helps them stay warm in the high altitudes where they live. The name of the Firefox web browser is said to have been derived from a nickname of the red panda.
Blue whale is the largest animal on the planet. It can be found in all oceans of the world. They usually spend the summer in arctic water and migrate to southern (warmer) waters during winter time. Blue whales are very old creatures - they exist on the Earth 54 million years. Number of blue whales decreased drastically in the first half of the 20th century when whalers hunted them nearly to extinction. Today there are nearby 20000 whales are left.
In the decade of 1980s, the number of white-Rumped vultures was around 80 million in India. Today its number decreased to less than 60 thousand (2012).This is the fastest disappearance of any bird species in the world, including Dodo. As we know that vulture plays a prominent role in the sanitation work. The disappearance of vulture has resulted in the explosion of rats etc. This degradation cost around US $ 25 bn. up to 2015.
Whales belong to the order cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. Whales are divided into two suborders: baleen and toothed whales. Baleen whales have a comb-like fringe, called a baleen, on the upper jaw, which is used to filter plankton, as well as small fish and crustaceans. They are the largest species of whale. Toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, other whales and marine mammals. They sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.
Sariska Tiger Reserve is located in Alwar District of Rajasthan in lap of Aravali hills. Sariska Tiger Reserve or Sariska National Park was a hunting reserve area for Alwar state. It got a status of wildlife reserve in year 1955 and in year 1978 it became Sariska Tiger Reserve. It covers area of 866 sq kms. The Wild life 0f Sariska Park includes Royal Bengal Tiger, Leopard, Jungle Cat, Caracal, Striped Hyena, Golden Jackal, Chital, Sambhar, Blue Bull, Chinkara, Four Horned antelope.
Ranthambore National Park is in Sawai Madhopur District of Rajasthan. It is located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.The park covers an area of Approximately 400 sq Km and if combined it with the area of sawai man singh sanctuary area, it is around 500 Sq km. Ranthambore national park was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957 and in 1974 it gained the protection of "Project Tiger". It got the status of a National Park in 1981.
The Kanha National Park is situated in the Maikal range of Satpuras in Madhya Pradesh. The national park is being popularized as the Tiger reserve. It is spreading across two districts the Mandala and the Kalaghat. Kanha National Park was declared a reserve forest in 1879 and revalued as a wildlife sanctuary in 1933. Its position was further upgraded to a national park in 1955. The picturesque Kanha National Park was the inspiration behind Rudyard Kipling's unforgettable classic Jungle Book.
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand and was named after Jim Corbett who played a key role in its establishment. The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative. Area of the Jim Corbett Park is 520.82 sq km (1318 sq km Corbett National Park including Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary).
Gir National Park & Wildlife Sanctuary is the last shelter of the surviving population of the Asiatic Lion. The park stretched in 1412 sq. km of deciduous forest covering semi-evergreen and evergreen flora, acacia, scrub jungle, grasslands and rocky hills. As per the 14th Asiatic Lion Census May, 2015 the population of lion has increased to 523 (27% up compared to previous census in 2010). Currently there are 109 males, 201 females and 213 young/cubs/lions in the Gir National Park & Wildlife Sanctuary.
Dachigam National Park was established in 1981 and it is located in the high altitude temperate zone in Jammu & Kashmir which is only 22 km away from the Srinagar. The average height of the park is 2990 meters from the sea level. The park is spread in 141 kms. Main trees found in the park are; Himalayan moist temperate evergreen, moist deciduous and shrubs, deodar, pine and oak. The term Dachigam stands ‘ten villages’.
The Dudhwa National Park is a protected area in Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich districts of Uttar Pradesh. It is scattered in the area of 1,284.3 km (495.9 sq mi) and includes three large forest fragments amidst the matrix dominated by agriculture. It ranges in altitude from 110 to 185 m (361 to 607 ft).It shares the north-eastern boundary with Nepal. The national park is also inhabited by rattling diversity of birds, including Swamp Francolin, Bengal Florican and Great Slaty Woodpecker.
Buxa Tiger Reserve (B.T.R.) is situated in Alipurduar Sub-division of Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal. It comprises of the entire Buxa Forest Division (702.44 km2), and a part of Cooch- Behar Forest Division (58.43 km2). The Reserve lies between latitudes 26o30′ and 26o55′ N and longitudes 89o20′ and 89o55′ E. Buxa Tiger Reserve created in 1983 as the 15th tiger reserve in India. In 1992, Government of West Bengal declared its intentions to constitute a National Park over 117.10 km2 of the Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary.
Bandipur National Park is tagged as one of the most beautiful and the well-managed national parks of India. It is situated amidst the picturesque surroundings of the towering Western Ghats Mountains on the Mysore-Ooty highway in Karnataka. Bandipur National Park is scattered in area of about 874.2 sq km. It creates the India's biggest biosphere reserve popularly known as the 'Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Bandipur also has a sizable number of Tigers.
Bandhavgarh National Park, the most popular national parks in India is located in the Vindhya Hills of the Umaria district in Madhya Pradesh. It is declared a national park in 1968. The Bandhavgarh National Park is spread across the area of 105 km². The area of Bandhavgarh is being flourished with a large biodiversity, the place which is also being famed to grip highest density of tiger population in India.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea. Two species are traditionally recognised, the African elephant and the Asian elephants.
The Western Ghats scattered from the mount of the river Tapi to the cape of kanyakumari for a distance of 1600 kms. Its average height is 1200 metres. It is not a real hill range; rather it is a rift side in the peninsular plateau. The height of Western Ghats increases from north to south whereas height of Eastern Ghats increases from south to north. Western Ghats are also more continuous than Eastern Ghats.
Sundarban, the largest delta in the world, consists of 10,200 sq km of Mangrove Forest, spread over India and Bangladesh. The part of the forest within Indian Territory is called Sundarbans National Park and is in the southern part of West Bengal. The Sundarbans cover an area of 38,500 sq km, of which about one-third is covered by water/marsh. The forest has a large number of Sundari trees. Sundarban is world famous for the Royal Bengal tigers.
The Nanda Devi National Park, established in 1982, as a national park. It is situated around the peak of Nanda Devi (7816 m) in the state of Uttarakhand in northern India. It was inscribed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988. The Park was established as Sanjay Gandhi National Park by Notification in 1982 but was later renamed Nanda Devi National Park. Some 312 floral species that include 17 rare species have been found here. Fir, birch, rhododendron, and juniper are the main flora.
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the base of foot hills of the Bhutan-Himalayas in the state of Assam. It is famous for unique biodiversity and landscape. Manas is the first reserve included in the network of tiger reserve under Project tiger in 1973. The Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was tagged as World Heritage Site in 1985. In 1989, Manas acquired the status of a Biosphere reserve. It extends over an area of 2837 Sq. Km from Sankosh River in the west to Dhansiri River in the east.
The Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) is located in the Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India. GHNP was formally declared a National Park in 1999, scattering area of 754.4 sq kms. The Great Himalayan National Park is a habitat to numerous flora and more than 376 fauna species, including approximately 32 mammals, 180 birds, 3 reptiles, 10 amphibians, 12 annelids, 18 mollusks and 126 insects. It got the tag of World Heritage site on 23rd June 2014.