Multipurpose river valley projects are basically designed for the development of irrigation for agriculture and electricity through the construction of dams. Initially, dams were built only for storing rain water to prevent flooding but now it became multipurpose. Here, we are giving the list of important river-valley projects in India which will help the students for quick revision.
Multipurpose River-Valley Projects in India
It is hydro-electric project constructed on the river Krishna.
Baspa Hydro-Electric Project
It is the first Independent Power Producer (IPP) project after the Government of India liberalized the power policy by inviting private sector participation for setting up hydropower project on “BOO” basis. It is located in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is the largest private hydro-electric project and has been built by Jaypee group. It is located on Baspa River, a tributary of Satluj.
It is a joint venture of the governments of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. It consists of two units: (i) Beas-Sutlej Link and (ii) Beas Dam at Pong. The project links the Beas and the Sutlej rivers in Punjab through 38.4 km of hills and valleys. The waters of the Beas were poured into the mighty Sutlej river on July 10, 1977 at the first-ever man-made confluence of the two major rivers at Slapper in Himachal in a mighty bid to augment the water resources of the Gobind Sagar Lake of the Bhakra-complex. This completed the Rs 380- crore dream which was realised in a period of only 12 years.
Bhadra Reservoir Project
Bhadra Reservoir Project across the river Bhadra is in Karnataka.
Project (Himachal Pradesh) Largest multipurpose project in India and the highest straight gravity dam in the world (225.5 m high) on the river Sutlej.
Chambal Valley Project
It is a joint undertaking by the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh governments. The Rana Pratap Dam at Bhata, 48 km from Kotah, was inaugurated on Feb 9, 1970. The project comprises construction of two other dams: Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh and Jawahar Sagar (Kotah) Dam in Rajasthan.
Chamera Hydro-Electric Project
The 540 MW Chamera hydro-electric project on the Ravi river in Himachal Pradesh was implemented with Canadian credit offer of about Rs 335 crore.
The 336 MW project is the most prestigious and largest in Bhutan. It has been completely built by India. The dam has been constructed on Wang Chu River. The project costed Rs 244 crore.
Damodar Valley Project (West Bengal and Bihar)
Principal object of this multipurpose scheme is to control the flowing of the Damodar which is notorious for its vagaries and destructiveness. It is designed on the lines of the Tennessee Valley Authority (T.V.A.) in U.S.A.
Dul-Hasti Hydro-Electric Project
The Rs. 1263 crore project is being built on river Chenab in Jammu and Kashmir. The foundation of the project was laid in September 1984. The project will consist of a power plant of 390 MW capacities. The power house will be located underground.
The Rs. 600 crore, 280 MW project is to be located on Dhauliganga River in Uttaranchal.
The basic aim of the Farakka Barrage is to preserve and maintain Calcutta port and to improve the navigability of the Hooghly river. It consists of a barrage across the Ganga at Farakka, another barrage at Jangipur across the Bhagirthi, a 39-km long feeder canal taking off from the right bank of the Ganga at Farakka and tailing into the Bhagirathi below the Jangipur barrage, and a road-cum-rail bridge have already been completed. Specially, the object of Farakka is to use about 40,000 cusecs of water out of the water stored in the dam to flush the Calcutta port which is getting silted up.
Gandak Project (Bihar and U.P)
This is a joint venture of India and Nepal as per agreement signed between the two governments on Dec 4, 1959. Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are the participating Indian States. Nepal would also derive irrigation and power benefits from this project.
Hirakud Project (Orissa)
It is the first of a chain of three Dams planned for harnessing the Mahanadi.
Idukki Hydro-Electric Project
It is a giant hydro-electric project of Kerala and one of the biggest in the country, constructed with Canadian assistance with an installed capacity of 390 MW in the first stage and 780 MW in the second stage. The project envisages to harness Periyar waters, has three major dams, the 169 m high Idukki arch dam across Periyar river, 138 m high Cheruthoni Dam across the tributary of Cheruthoni river and 99.9 m high Kulamavu Dam.
Jayakwadi Dam (Maharashtra)
The 10-km-long Jayakwadi dam on the Godavari is Maharashtra’s largest irrigation project located near Paithan.
Kalpong Hydro-Electric Project
This is the first hydel power plant of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The 5.25 MW project was commissioned on July 1, 2001. It is located near Kalara village of Diglipur Tehsil in North Andaman and has been built by National Hydel Power Corporation.
It is situated on the Tapti near Kakrapara, 80 km upstream of Surat. The project is financed by the Gujarat Government.
Koel Karo Project
The project envisages construction of earthen dam across river south Koel at Basia in Bihar and another dam over north Karo at Lohajimi. The capacity will be 710 MW.
The 600 MW project is to be located on the Satluj, 6 km upstream of the Dehar Power House on the Beas-Satluj link project in Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh. Besides generating power, the dam will also serve as a check dam for the 1,050-MW Bhakra Dam and prolong its life by at least 10 years.
This project will serve Bihar and Nepal. The Kosi rises in Nepal, passes through Bihar and joins the Ganges. The river is subject to heavy floods. Two dams are to be built across it.
This Project is a venture of Andhra Pradesh for utilizing water of the Krishna River. The Nagarjunasagar Dam was inaugurated on Aug 4, 1967. It is situated near Nandikonda village in Miryalguda Taluk of Nalgonda district.
Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro-Electric Project
India’s largest hydro-electric project, it is located at Nathpa Jhakri in Himachal Pradesh. It is built on Satluj River. The first of the six 250 MW units was commissioned on December 30, 2002. The project is being executed by Satluj Jal Nigam (formerly Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation).
Parambikulam Aliyar Project
It is a joint venture of Tamil Nadu and Kerala States. It envisages construction of seven inter-connected reservoirs by harnessing rivers including two major rivers viz., Parambikulam on the western slopes of Annamalai Hills and Aliyar on the eastern slopes.
The Rs 1-crore Parappalar Dam with a storage capacity of 167 million cubic feet near Oddenchatram, about 75 km from Madurai in Palni taluk (Tamil Nadu), was inaugurated on August 30, 1976.
Parvati Valley Project
It is the first inter-State hydel power project of India. Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi have joined hands with Himachal Pradesh to set up the project. The 2050 MW project will be built near Kullu, on Parvati river, a tributary of Beas.
Periyar Valley Scheme (Kerala)
The scheme envisages the construction of a masonry barrage 210.92 metres long across the river Periyar near Alwaye, in Ernakulam district.
Rajasthan Canal Project
It is a bold venture of bringing irrigation to a desert area. The project, which uses water from the Pong dam, consists of 215-km long Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 178 km in Punjab and Haryana and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan) and the 467-km long Rajasthan main canal lying entirely in Rajasthan.
Ramganga River Project
This Project in Uttaranchal envisages construction of a dam across the river Ramganga, one of the major tributaries of the Ganga at 3.2 km upstream of Kalagarh in Garhwal district. RANJIT SAGAR DAM PROJECT Formerly known as Thein dam, it was dedicated to the nation on March 4, 2001. It is built on Ravi River near Thein village in Punjab. Total installed capacity is 600 MW.
Rihand Project (Mirzapur District—U.P.)
This project has been completed by the U.P. Government and comprises construction of a concrete gravity dam across the Rihand river in Mirzapur District (U.P.) and a Power House at Pipri and necessary transmission lines. Gobind Ballabh Pant Sagar is a part of this project.
Rongtong Project World’s Highest Hydro Power Project
Rongtong project is situated in Kaza in the Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh. The project has helped transform the entire cold mountain desert into a lush green belt.
It has been built on River Chenab in Jammu and Kashmir. The first stage was completed on February 9, 1989 and marked the beginning of the harnessing of hydro power potential of river Chenab. At present the capacity of the powerhouse is 345 MW. With completion of second stage the capacity will double.
Sankosh Hydel-Power Project
India and Bhutan have signed an agreement for building of a gigantic Sankosh hydel power project. It will be one among the ten largest projects in Asia. The project is to be constructed near Kerabari in Gaylegphug district of Bhutan on Sankosh River. It will include a 600 metre-long and 239 metre high dam and a reservoir with a catchment area of 10,525 sq km. It is estimated to cost around Rs 2000 crore. Once completed, the project will generate 1,525 MW of power and help irrigate eight lakh hectares of land.
Sanjay Vidyut (Hydel) Project
It is Asia’s first fully underground Hydel Project. The 120 MW project is located near Bhaba Nagar in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. It harnesses the water of the Bhaba Khud, a tributary of Satluj.
Sardar Sarovar Project
This is one of the largest river valley schemes in the country. The project envisages construction of 163-metre-high cement concrete dam at Navagam in Gujarat. This will create irrigation potential of 1.79 million hectares and generate 1450 MW of power.
Sawalkote Hydro Project
The 600 MW project in Jammu & Kashmir is being built by a Norwegian consortium.
Sharavati Project (Karnataka)
Located about 400 km from Bangalore near the Gersoppa falls, the Sharavati Project is one of the world’s major power projects, built by Indian engineers with American collaboration.
It is a massive power project, 110 km away from Nagarjunasagar in the upper reaches of the river Krishna.
It is Rs 130-crore multipurpose project which would, when completed, provide assured irrigation to 7,06,000 acres to the chronically drought-prone areas of Orissa and Bihar.
Tehri Dam Project
World’s fifth and Asia’s largest hydro-electric project has been constructed on river Bhagirithi, a tributary of Ganga in Tehri district of Uttaranchal. The height of the earth and rockfill dam is 260.5 m, making it the highest dam in the country. Once fully operational, the project will produce 1000 MW electricity.
Tungabhadra Project (Andhra And Karnataka)
It is a joint undertaking by the governments of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The project comprises a dam across the Tungabhadra River near Mallapuram.
The Ukai power project of Gujarat equipped with power generating sets manufactured by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited was inaugurated on October 12, 1977. It has added 540,000 KW of installed capacity to the State’s existing power network.