Climate is the average weather condition and variations in both space and time over a large area.
Humid Tropical Climates The Tropical Rain Forest/Equatorial Climate : This climate is found in a belt 0° to 25°N and S. The annual average temperature is 27°C and rainfall is heavy.
The Savanna Climate : It is surrounded by tropical rain forest climate towards equator and dry climates towards poles. Temperature is high throughout the year, and annual average temperature is 23°C and rainfall is 160 cm.
The Monsoon Climate : It is characterized by seasonal reversal of wind direction associated with alternating period of rainfall and drought.
The Desert Climate : The chief feature of any desert climate is the scarcity of water. Precipitation is not only scanty but also erratic, and annual average temperature is about 38°C.
The Steppe Climate : These are dry lands due to their position in land masses away from oceanic influences. It is characterised by meagre and unreliable precipitation. The annual range of temperature and rainfall is 13°C and 30 cm.
Humid Mid-Latitudes Climates
The Mediterranean Climate : This climate is found along the west coasts of continents between 30° and 45° latitudes. The annual range of temperature is about 10°C to 17°C. Rainfall is moderate and varies between 40 cm and 60 cm. Most of it occurs in the winter season.
The Humid Sub-Tropical Climate or China Type : It is found between 25° and 45° latitudes. Summers are hot and humid. Winters are mild. The average annual temperature is 20°C. Yearly precipitation is more than 100 cm.
The Marine West European Climate : It is found along 40° and 65° North and South latitudes. The average annual temperature is 10°C. Total annual rainfall is about 140 cm. The winters are rainier than the summers.
Humid Mid-Latitudes Climates The Taiga Climate : It is named after the coniferous forest cover found in the region. It is dominated by continental polar air masses. The summers are short and the temperature, varies between 10°C and 15°C. The winters are long and cold.
The Cool East Coast Climate: The summers are long, hot and humid and under the influence of tropical maritime air masses.
Average summer temperature is 25°C. The winters are cold and the average winter temperature ranges between -4°C and 0°C.
The Continental Climate : This climatic region is situated in the interior of the big continents between the Taiga and the mid-latitude deserts. Summers are short and warm, temperature being in between 10°C and 21°C. Winters are long. Temperature goes below freezing point.
Polar Climates The Tundra Climate: It is found in Northern Hemisphere occupying coastal fringes of Arctic Ocean and Islands. Temperature is above freezing point and less than 10°C in the warmest month. ,
The Ice Cap Climate : It is a region of permanent ice and snow and temperature is below 0°C in the warmest months.