Governor:Gen. Sumith Francis Rodrigves
Chief Minister:Prakash Singh Badal
Lok Sabha seats: 13
Judicature: Punjab and Haryana High Court, Chandigarh
Languages: Punjabi, Hindi
Population density: 482/sq km
No. of districts: 20
Main crops: Wheat, rice gram, jowar, barley, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, oilseeds, poppy
Rivers: Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Ghaggar, Indus
Minerals: Salt petre
Industries: Sewing machines, cycles, engineering goods, hosiery and Knitwear, agricultural implements, sport goods
Airports: Chandigarh, Amritsar, Patiala and Ludhiana
BOUNDARIES: East : Haryana; North-east : Himachal Pradesh; North
Punjab is largely a flat plain that rises gently from about 150 metres in the southwest to about 300 metres in the northeast. Physiographically, it can be divided into three parts: (i) The Shiwalik Hills in the northeast rising from about 300 to 900 metres; (ii) The zone of narrow, undulating foothills dissected by seasonal rivers terminating in the plains and not flowing into bigger waterbodies and (iii) The flat tract with fertile alluvial soils. The lowlying floodplains lie along the rivers while the slightly elevated flat uplands lie between them. Sand dunes are found in the southwest and west of the Sutlej.
Punjab was the site of the Indus Valley Civilization. Archaeological excavations all over the state have revealed evidences of the cities belonging to the civilization that also included Harappa and Mohenjodaro, which are now in Pakistan. The Mahabharata contains rich descriptions of the land and people of Punjab. The Vedic and the later epic periods of the Punjab are of great significance. The Rig Veda was composed here. Numerous cultural and educational centres were established in the region during the period. In 327 BC Alexander invaded Punjab, defeating Raja Paurava. Modern-day Punjab owes its origin to Banda Singh Bahadur who led a group of Sikhs to free parts of the region from Mughal rule in 1709-10. In 1716, however, the Mughals defeated and killed Banda Singh.
By 1764-65, the Sikhs established their dominance in the region. Ranjit Singh led Punjab into a powerful kingdom and also added the provinces of Multan, Kashmir, and Peshawar. In 1849, Punjab had passed into the hands of the British East India Company. It later became a province of the British Empire in India.
Many Punjabis played significant roles during India’s freedom struggle. These included Baba Ram Singh (of the Kuka or Namdhari movement fame), Lala Lajpat Rai, Madan La! Dhingra, Bhagat Singh and Bhai Parmanand. The nationalist fervour was kept alive by several movements, such as the Singh Sabha, Arya Samaj and the Akali movements and by organizations like Bharat Mata Society, Naujawan Bharat Sabha and Kirti Kisan Sabha. It was in Punjab that the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place at Amritsar on 13 April 1919. At the time of independence in 1947, the province was divided between India and Pakistan. The smaller eastern portion was allocated to India. Gopichand Bhargava was the first chief minister of the state. In November 1956 the Indian state of Punjab was enlarged by the addition of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Pepsu was a collection of the erstwhile princely states of Faridkot, jind, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Nabha, Nalagarh and Patiala. The present- day state of Punjab came into existence on I November 1966 when Punjab was divided on a linguistic basis. The Hindispeaking parts were formed into a new state, Haryana. The northernmost districts were transferred to Himachal Pradesh.
327 BC - Alexander invaded Punjab
1849 – Punjab was annexed to the British Empire
1956 – PEPSU was added to Punjab
November 1966 – Present day Punjab was formed on linguistic basis.