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CBSE Class 12 Study Material

Biotechnology and its Applications (part-2)

May 30, 2014
Insertion of genes into an individual’s cells and tissues to treat diseases especially hereditary diseases is called as gene therapy. The mechanism of gene therapy is based on the replacement of a defective mutant allele with a functional one or gene targeting which involves gene amplification.

Biotechnology and its Applications (part-1)

May 30, 2014
Transgenic animal is the animal that has had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene. Transgenic rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, cows and fish have been produced, although over 95 per cent of all existing transgenic animals are mice

Biotechnology: Principles and Processes (part-2)

May 30, 2014
Ecognition sequence for Hind II is the specific base sequence. Besides Hind II, today we know more than 900 restriction enzymes that have been isolated from over 230 strains of bacteria each of which recognize different recognition sequences.

Biotechnology: Principles and Processes (part-1)

May 30, 2014
Biotechnology is a type of practical biology which involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields . Biotechnology also utilizes the byproducts for development purpose.

The d-and f-Block Elements (Part-1)

May 30, 2014
Those elements having a partially filled d or f subshell in any common oxidation state are said to be transition elements. The term "transition elements" most commonly refers to the d-block transition elements.

The d-and f-Block Elements (Part-2)

May 18, 2013
Melting and boiling point of d & f block elements are very high (except Zn). These higher values are due to small atomic radii of transition elements which provides greater inter atomic forces of attraction.

The p-Block Elements (Part-2)

May 17, 2013
The molecule of ammonia is trigonal pyramidal with the nitrogen atom at the apex. It has three bond pairs and one lone pair of electrons as shown in the structure.

The p-Block Elements (Part-1)

May 30, 2014
Atomic sizes, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electro negativity are the parameters witch influence the properties of p-block elements like that of others

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Part-2)

May 30, 2014
The process of metallurgy and isolation should be such that it is chemically feasible and commercially viable. Still, some general principles are common to all the extraction processes of metals.

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Part-1)

May 30, 2014
A naturally occurring inorganic solid, whose chemical composition is definite, and having an  ordered atomic arrangement is called as mineral. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler. In the same way we can define one more basic term like an ore. A type of rock that contains minerals with important elements including metals is called as ore.

Surface Chemistry (Part-2)

May 17, 2013
A physical adsorption process in which there are van der Waals forces of interaction between gas or liquid molecules and a solid surface. Chemisorption involves a chemical reaction between the surface and the adsorbate. It is a type of adsorption

Surface Chemistry (Part-1)

May 17, 2013
Process of adsorption is similar to absorption, by which a substance in a gas or liquid becomes attached to a solid. The substance can be a pollutant, called an adsorbate, which is attracted to the surface of a special solid.
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