Definition: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an analysis tool used in statistics to check if the means of two or more groups are significantly different from each other. ANOVA checks the impact of one or more factors by comparing the means of different samples. Thus, the fundamental strategy of ANOVA is to systematically examine variability within groups being compared and also examine variability between the groups being compared.
One way ANOVA is used to compare means of the groups of an independent variable to see if the groups are significantly different from each other or not.
Thus, the purpose of one-way Analysis of Variance is to test whether group means are equal or not. For this, we calculate an F ratio for which we divide the variance of the independent variable into two components: variation between sample means and variation within the samples
One-way Anova test statistics is represented as follows:
F = MSB/MSW
• F = ANOVA coefficient
• MSB = Mean sum of squares between the groups
• MSW = Mean sum of squares within the groups
• SSB = Sum of squares between the groups
• SSW = Sum of squares within the groups
• df = Degrees of freedom
• k = The number of groups
• N = Total number of observations across all groups
Significance of ANOVA:
The ANOVA test allows a comparison of more than two groups at the same time to determine whether a relationship exists between them. The result of the ANOVA formula, the F statistic (also called the F-ratio), allows for the analysis of multiple groups of data to determine the variability between samples and within samples.