Check CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus 2021-22 for CBSE Academic Session 2021-22. It is very important for the preparation of upcoming CBSE Class 11 exams. Link to download CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus is given at the end of this article.
CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus 2021-22:
Part A: Indian Constitution at Work
1. Constitution - 30 Periods
Constitution: The Philosophy and Making of the Constitution, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles of State Policy, Constitutional Amendments.
2. Election and Representation - 14 Periods
Elections and Democracy, Election System in India, Electoral Reforms.
3. Legislature - 14 Periods
Why do we need a Parliament? Unicameral/Bicameral Legislature, Functions and Power of the Parliament, Parliamentary Committees, Parliamentary Officials: Speaker, Deputy Speaker, Parliamentary Secretary.
4. Executive - 12 Periods
Parliamentary Executive in India: the President, the Prime Minister and the Council of
Ministers. Permanent Executive: Bureaucracy.
5. Judiciary - 12 Periods
Why do we need an Independent Judiciary? Structure and Jurisdiction of the
Judiciary, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism, Judicial Overreach.
6. Federalism - 14 Periods
Meaning of Federalism, Evolution & Growth of Indian Federalism: Quasi Federalism, Cooperative Federalism, Competitive Federalism.
7. Local Governments - 14 Periods
Why do we need Local Governments? Growth of Local Governments in India, 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, Working and Challenges of Local Governments.
Part B: Political Theory
8. Political Theory: An Introduction - 12 Periods
What is Politics? Politics vs Political Theory, Importance of Political Theory.
9. Liberty - 12 Periods
Liberty vs Freedom, Negative and Positive Liberty.
10. Equality - 12 Periods
What is Equality? Significance of Equality, Various Dimensions of Equality, How can we promoteEquality?
11. Justice - 12 Periods
What is Justice? Different Dimensions of Justice, Distributive Justice.
12. Rights - 12 Periods
What are Rights? History of Rights, Kinds of Rights, Human Rights.
13. Citizenship - 13 Periods
Citizen and Citizenship, Citizen and Nation, Global Citizenship.
14. Nationalism - 13 Periods
Nation and Nationalism, Variants of Nationalism, Nationalism & Multiculturalism.
15. Secularism - 12 Periods
What is Secularism? Western and Indian Perspectives of Secularism, Salient
Features of Indian Secularism.
16. Development - 12 Periods
Growth vs. Development, Different Models of Development – Welfare State Model, Market Model, Developmental Model.
1. Indian Constitution at Work, Class XI, Published by NCERT
2. Political Theory, Class XI, Published by NCERT
3. Uploaded Additional Study Materials
Note: The above textbooks are also available in Hindi and Urdu versions.
The weightage of marks over the different paper shall be as follows:-
1. Weightage of Content
Part A: Indian Constitution at Work
Part B: Political Theory
Paper I: Indian Constitution at Work
Unit -1: Constitution
Sub-Unit: Constitutional Amendments
As of 2019, there have been a total 103 amendments of the Constitution of India.
Unit - 2: Election and Representation
Sub-Unit: ‘ Electoral Reforms in Indian Politics’
Electoral Reforms in the 21st Century include use of EVM [Electronic Voting Machine], VVPAT [Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail] and NOTA [None of the Above]. Restriction on exit polls, ceiling on election expenditure (Rs.50- 70 Lakhs for the Lok Sabha election and Rs. 20-28
Lakhs for the Assembly election) and the use of electoral bonds in election funding are some of the major reforms initiated by the Election Commission of India that have sought to bring about revolutionary changes in the electoral process and the voter behaviour in contemporary India.
Unit- 5: Judiciary
Sub-Unit: ‘Judicial Overreach’
When the judiciary assumes the roles and functions of the legislature and executive, thus diluting the concept of separation of powers, it becomes judicial overreach. Unrestrained activism on the part of the judiciary often leads to its overreach.
We all know that Article 142 and judicial review have been put to many constructive uses but some actions like declaring the NJAC (National Judicial Appointment Commission) unconstitutional as it tried to apply checks on judicial power highlight the need for judicial restraints in the exercise of judicial review.
Unit- 6: Federalism
Sub-Unit: ‘Quasi Federalism’, ‘ Cooperative Federalism’, ‘ Competitive Federalism’
Quasi Federalism: In the context of special features and provisions of Indian federalism we use the phrase, ‘Quasi Federalism’, a concept given by K. C. Wheare. Quasi federalism represents a strong centre with comparatively less stronger units. Where describes the Indian case in its formative phase as a ‘quasi federation – A unitary state with subsidiary federal features rather than a federal state with subsidiary unitary features’.
Cooperative Federalism: Cooperative federalism is the concept which reflects the relationship between the Union and the States where both come together and resolve the common problems with each other’s cooperation in amicable manner thus contributing towards the growth of a strong federation. It shows the horizontal relationship between the Union and the States where none is placed over and above one another. To ensure this strong relationship between the two, the Indian constitution has evolved and incorporated certain instruments and agencies like the Inter-State Councils, Zonal Councils, the 7th Schedule, etc.
Competitive Federalism: Competitive federalism places all states vis a vis the Union on equal and competing footing where the best performing states can take the maximum benefits of the resources, services and taxes. It ensures a healthy competition among states leading towards better performance and delivery which constitute an important part of governance. The post- liberalisation era reflects the trend of competitive federalism where states are more autonomous, accountable and efficient in their functioning
Paper II: Political Theory
Sub-Unit: ‘Liberty vs Freedom’
We hear a lot around us that people appear to use the word liberty and freedom as synonyms of each other. But there are some fundamental differences between these two concepts that must be understood. Liberty comes from the Latin word “libertatem” which means “condition of a freeman”. While freedom come from the English word “freedom” which means “state of free will”. Liberty is power to act and express oneself according to one’s will while freedom is the power to decide one’s action. Freedom is more concrete concept than liberty which is more associated with an individual’s connection with the state rather than with other individuals and circumstances. State guarantees freedom through the liberty it grants to its citizens.
The difference between these two concepts can briefly be outlined as follows:
● Condition of a free man State of free will
● Power to act Power to decide
● Free to do something Free from something
The common feature between these two concepts is that both remain unconstrained, which means that their realization is free from any constraint. Further, both follow rightful or ethical conformity in terms of their realization.
Sub-Unit: Different Dimensions of Justice’
Till now we have tried to understand what the term justice means. After considering this, we need to know different dimensions of justice which may help us in establishing a just society. Legal, social, political and economic justice are the key dimensions of justice. Here, we will try to understand these dimensions in some detail.
1. Legal Justice: It is a narrow concept of justice which is associated with the legal system and legal procedure existing in a society. The court of law interprets the law and applies it after hearing the partners involved in a dispute. Here, justice is what is administered by the court of law and the interpretation of the judge is considered to be an embodiment of justice.
2. Political Justice: In any democratic society political justice means providing equal political rights. Political justice stands for a free and fair participation of people in the political sphere. Universal adult franchise is the expression of political justice. Equality of opportunity in getting elected and in holding public offices, freedom of expression and association are important pillars of political justice.
3. Social Justice: It means to end all types of social inequalities and to provide proper opportunity to every citizen in every sphere of life, to develop her/his personality to ensure equality of law, prohibition of discrimination, social security, provision of equal political rights, etc. The concept of social justice is based on the belief that all human beings are equal and no discrimination should be made on the ground of race, religion, caste, gender and place of birth.
4. Economic Justice: It means to provide equal opportunities to everyone to earn her/his livelihood. It also means to help such people who are not able to work and earn their livelihood. The basic needs of every person such as food, cloth, shelter and education should be fulfilled. It stands for by assuring adequate means of livelihood to all, by making provisions for equal pay for equal work, fair distribution of resources, equal economic opportunity to all, etc.
While the concept of political justice is closely linked with the ideal of “liberty”, economic and legal justice with “equality” and social justice with “fraternity”, a just combination of all these four dimensions will help in achieving justice in life.
Sub-Unit: ‘ Human Rights’
Human rights are those rights which all human beings are entitled by virtue of being human. It is based on the principle of respect for the individual. The fundamental assumption behind the concept of human rights is that every person is an amoral and rational being who deserves to be treated with dignity. Human rights are both universal and fundamental; these are universal in the sense that they belong to all human beings irrespective of race, nationality, community, religion, gender, etc; these are also fundamental because once given, these cannot be taken back.
Although the presence of human rights can be traced to ancient Indian philosophy and culture, the concept formally originated at the international level in 1948 with the UN Declaration of Human Rights listing 30 rights for all people across the globe.
Multiculturalism in the general sense is the coexistence of people of different religions, cultural groups and communities in all countries of the globe. Originated in the 1970s with a counter- culturalism and human rights movement in opposition to the homogenization of other cultures in favor of the white culture of America and Europe, multiculturalism broadly comprises the principles of both ‘acceptance’ and ‘reverence’. It expects all countries of the globe to give equal acceptance and reverence to the cultural groups. In the India context, the concept of multiculturalism is identified with the notion of "Salad Bowl", advocated by social scientist Ashish Nandy. It shows that different cultural groups within a nation maintain their identity with their respective distinct forms.
Sub-Unit: ‘Growth vs Development ’
However, many people accept growth and development to be the same, but there is a remarkable difference between the two. Growth includes measures of economic performance in terms of value of income, expenditure and output, seen in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, measures of economic growth can give distorted pictures of the level of income in a country because a small proportion of the population can own a large amount of the wealth in a country whereas the rest live with bare minimum levels of income and resources. Economic growth refers to just one aspect of development.
Development, on the other hand, refers to securing socio-economic and political growth by changing the conditions of underdevelopment through organised and planned efforts which seek to address the issue of poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy and economic and industrial un- development. When we try to understand the broader meaning of development then it can be linked with holistic welfare of humans in society which includes freedom, leading a healthy and productive life and participation in the decision making process.
Sub-Unit: ‘Different Models of Development’
1. Market Model: In this model, it is held that all societies undergo changes from traditional, transitional and modern stages of development. Some of its features include:
· It regards political development as the condition of economic development.
· It supports the autonomy, rights and self-interest of the individual as the basis of all development.
· It stands for rapid industrialization, technological advancement, modernization, full employment and continuous process of liberalization of society, economy and polity.
The goods of development are to be achieved on the basis of free market economy, competitiveness and all-round individual development. It believes in the principle of leaving the economy under the competitive policy of non- intervention and demand supply chain.
2. Welfare State Model: The welfare model of development accepts and strongly advocates the role of the state in the economic sphere for promoting the socio-economic welfare and common interest of the society. It conceptualises the state as a welfare state and advocates the state planning and organised efforts as essential conditions for rapid industrialisation, economic growth, and socio- economic development. The welfare state can provide various types of social services for the people like education, health, employment, social security and public distribution system.
Under this model, the State acts as the key agency for promoting desired social change and development. It takes special steps for protecting the weaker sections of the society. The Welfare State protects all social, economic and political rights of all the people and in turn the people are expected to act in a socially responsible way.