CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2019 - 2020 & Important Resources

Check CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2019 - 2020 and download it in PDF format. This syllabus contains complete details about the new course structure of CBSE Class 12 Biology subject.

Mar 12, 2020 12:29 IST
facebook IconTwitter IconWhatsapp Icon
CBSE Syllabus 2019-20: Class 12 Biology
CBSE Syllabus 2019-20: Class 12 Biology

The Central Board of Secondary Education has released the PDF of CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2019 - 2020. You can download the PDF with the help of download link given at the end of this article. The new CBSE Syllabus of Class 12 Biology contains complete details about topics, course structure, marks distribution etc.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Sample Paper 2020: Download PDF

⇒  CBSE 12th Date Sheet 2020 (New)

Important Portion from CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2019 - 2020:




Number of Periods






Genetics and Evolution




Biology and Human Welfare




Biotechnology and its Applications




Ecology and Environment







Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms

Chapter-1: The Living World

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy- museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 12 Biology ‒ All Chapters

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples  of  each  category);  Angiosperms  -  classification  upto  class,  characteristic  features  and examples.

NCERT Exemplar Questions: CBSE Class 12 Biology - All Chapters

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).

(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)

Unit-II Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology and modifications: Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems.

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)

Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

Unit-IV Plant Physiology

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants

Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport;  plant-water  relations,  imbibition,  water  potential,  osmosis,  plasmolysis;  long  distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis.

Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition

Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport  system  (aerobic);  energy  relations  -  number  of  ATP  molecules  generated;  amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant - Growth and Development

Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

Unit-V Human Physiology

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption

Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Types  of movement  - ciliary,  flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins  and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.


Time allowed – 3 hours, maximum marks – 30

Evaluation Scheme


One Major Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 1,3,7,8)

5 Marks

One Minor Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 6,9,10,11,12,13)

4 Marks

Slide Preparation Part A (Experiment No- 2,4,5)

5 Marks

Spotting Part B

7 Marks

Practical Record + Viva Voce

Credit to the students’ work over the

academic session may be given

4 Marks

Project Record + Viva Voce

5 Marks


30 Marks

A: List of Experiments

1. Study and description of three locally available common flowering plants, one from each of the families Solanaceae, Fabacceae and Liliaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae can be substituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams). Types of root (Tap and adventitious); stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).

2.   Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).

3.   Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.

4.   Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).

5.   Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.

6.   Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.

7.   Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. Detection in suitable plant and animal materials.

8. Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.

9. Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.

10. Test for presence of urea in urine.

11. Test for presence of sugar in urine.

12. Test for presence of albumin in urine.

13. Test for presence of bile salts in urine.

B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)

1. Study of the parts of a compound microscope.

2. Study of the specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons - Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.

3. Study of  virtual  specimens/slides/models  and  identification  with  reasons  -  Amoeba,  Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard,  pigeon and rabbit.

4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.

5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.

6. Study of different modifications in roots, stems and leaves.

7. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).

8. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.

9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing:

a) Anaerobic respiration

b) Phototropism

c) Effect of apical bud removal

10. Study of human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.

11. Study of external morphology of cockroach through virtual images/models.

More details such as exam pattern, blueprint and other details are available in the PDF.

Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2019-20 in PDF

List of Books Recommended for CBSE Class 12 Biology

NCERT for CBSE Class 12 Biology ‒ All Chapters (With Solutions)

NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Biology - All Chapters [With Solutions]

Pardeep's - A Textbook of Biology for Class 12 [Offers Available]


Related Stories