CBSE Class 12 History Exam 2023: According to CBSE’s 2023 date sheet, the Class 12 History exam is planned for tomorrow, i.e., 29th March 2023, Wednesday. It is one of the important subjects in the Arts stream. The Exam code for CBSE Class 12 History Exam is 027. Source based questions are important as they cover a good part of the Class 12 History Exam. As per the latest sample paper, the complete section D is devoted to only source based questions. Students must check below the list of Case Study cum source based questions for last minute revision of CBSE Class 12 History Exam.
CBSE Class 12 History Exam 2023: Source-Based Questions
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow:
FROM JOHN MARSHALL, Mohenjo-Daro, and the Indus Civilization, 1931.
Sixteen skeletons of people with the ornaments that they were wearing when they died were found in the same part of Mohenjo-Daro in 1925. Much later, in 1947, R.E.M. Wheeler, then Director-General of the ASI, tried to correlate this archaeological evidence with that of the Rigveda, the earliest known text in the subcontinent.
He wrote: The Rigveda mentions pur, meaning rampart, fort, or stronghold. Indra, the Aryan war god is called Puram Dara, the fort-destroyer. Where are - or were - these citadels? It has in the past been supposed that they were mythical. The recent excavation of Harappa may be thought to have changed the picture. Here we have a highly evolved civilization of essentially non-Aryan type, now known to have employed massive fortifications. What destroyed this firmly settled civilization? Climatic, economic, or political deterioration may have weakened it, but its ultimate extinction is more likely to have been completed by deliberate and large-scale destruction. It may be no mere chance that at a late period of Mohenjodaro men, women, and children, appear to have been massacred there. On circumstantial evidence, Indra stands accused.
FROM R.E.M. WHEELER, “Harappa 1946”, Ancient India, 1947.
In the 1960s, the evidence of a massacre in Mohenjodaro was questioned by an archaeologist named George Dales. He demonstrated that the skeletons found at the site did not belong to the same period: Whereas a couple of them definitely seem to indicate a slaughter,....the bulk of the bones were found in contexts suggesting burials of the sloppiest and most irreverent nature. There is no destruction level covering the latest period of the city, no sign of extensive burning, and no bodies of warriors clad in armour and surrounded by the weapons of war. The citadel, the only fortified part of the city, yielded no evidence of a final defence.
FROM G.F. DALES, “The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjo-Daro”, Expedition, 1964.
As you can see, a careful re-examination of the data can sometimes lead to a reversal of earlier interpretations.
Q1.Name the archeologist who presented this source.
Ans- John Marshal
Q2. Which argument of the destruction of Harappa civilization, this excerpt indicates?
Ans. This exert indicates that the Harappa civilization was destroyed by foreign invasion.
Q3. Who co-relate this evidence with Rigveda? Why ?
Ans. R.E.M. Wheeler. Because, the Rigveda mentions pur, meaning rampart, fort or stronghold. Indra, the Aryan war-God is called Puram Dara, the fort-destroyer.
Q4. Who and how propounded the theory opposite to this ?
Ans. George Dales. He hesitates to accept that this invasion was carried on by the Aryans. . He demonstrated that the skeletons found at the site did not belong to the same period: Whereas a couple of them definitely seem to indicate a slaughter, the bulk of the bones were found in contexts suggesting burials of the sloppiest and most irreverent nature. There is no sign of extensive burning, no bodies of warriors clad in armor and surrounded by the weapons of war.
What the king’s officials did?
Here is an excerpt from the account of Megasthenes: Of the great officers of state, some ... superintend the rivers, measure the land, as is done in Egypt, and inspect the sluices by which water is let out from the main canals into their branches, so that everyone may have an equal supply of it. The same persons have charge also of the huntsmen, and are entrusted with the power of rewarding or punishing them according to their deserts. They collect taxes, and superintend the occupations connected with the land; as those of woodcutters, carpenters, blacksmiths, and miners.
Q.1- Explain the duties of the officers of the state.
- Some superintended the rivers, measured lands, and inspected the sluices by which water was let out from the main canals into their branches so that everyone would have an equal supply of it.
- They had also charge of huntsmen, entrusted with the power of rewarding or punishing them according to their deserts.
- They collected the taxes, and superintended the occupations connected with the land; as those of woodcutters, carpenters, blacksmiths, and miners.
Q2. Explain the role of the sub-committees in coordinating military activities.
- Megasthenes mentioned the committee with six subcommittees for coordinating military activity.
- They looked after the navy, transport and provisions, foot soldiers, horses, chariots, and elephants.
- The second committee had to arrange bullock carts to carry equipment procure food for soldiers and fodder for animals and recruit servants and artisans to look after the soldiers.
Q3. What did Ashoka do to hold his empire together?
- Ashoka tried to hold his empire together by propagating dhamma.
- Special officers called dhamma mahamattas were appointed to spread the message of dhamma.
Drupada the king of Panchal organized a competition where the challenges was to string a bow and hit a target: the winner would be chosen to marry his daughter Draupadi. Arjuna was victorious and was garlanded by Draupadi. The Pandavas returned with her to their mother Kunti, who, even before she saw them asked them to share whatever they had got .she realized her mistake when she saw Drupadi, but her command could not be violated. After much deliberation, Yudhisthira decided that Drupadi would be their common wife. When Drupda was told about this, he protested. However, the seer Vyasa arrived and told him that the Pandavas were in reality incarnations of Indra, whose wife had been reborn as Draupadi and they were thus destined for each other. Vyasa added that in another instance a young woman had prayed to shiva for a husband, and in her enthusiasm, had prayed five times instead of once. This woman was know reborn as Draupadi and Shiva had fulfilled her desire Convinced by these stories, Drupada consented to the marriage.
(Q1) What was the competition organized by the Panchala king Drupada for the marriage of his daughter?
Ans.Drupada organized a competition where the challenge was to string a bow and hit a target.
(Q2) What two explanations were given by Vyasa to convince king Drupada for
Draupadi being the common wife of the Pandvas?
Ans. Vyasa told that Pandvas were in reality incarnations of Indra. He also told that a women was blessed by Lord Shiva to have five husband was nowreborn as Draupadi.
(Q3) What form of the marriage was Draupadi’s marriage to the pandvas? Give two views of historians about the form of marriage.
Ans. It was an example of polyandry. Some historians believes that such kind of marriage were perhaps prevalent in some section of societies. Some historians believe that such tradition was present in the Himalayan region
Why were Stupa’s built?
“This is an excerpt from the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, part of the Sutta Pitaka: As the Buddha lay dying, Ananda asked him: “What are we to do Lord, with remains of the Tathagata (another name for the Buddha)?” The Buddha replied : “Hinder not yourselves Ananda by honouring the remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, be intent on your own good.” But when pressed further, the Buddha said: “At the four crossroads they should erect a thupa (Pali for stupa) to the Tathagata. And whosever shall there place garlands or perfume .... or make a salutation there, or become in its presence calm of heart, that shall long be to them for a profit and joy.”
Q1. What are the Stupas? Who advised the Ananda to build the Stupa? 1
Ans. The Stupa were sacred place. They preserved the relics of the Buddha such as his bodily remains or the objects used by him. All these things were buried in the stupas.
Q2. From which chapter has this excerpt been taken? It is a part of which book?1
Ans. This excerpt has been taken from the “ Mahaparinibbhana Sutta.” It was a part of the “Sutta Pitaka.”
Q3. Who was the Tathagata? What had he told about the importance of the stupa? 2
Ans. Tathagata was another name for the Buddha. He told Ananda that the honour to his worldly remains was not important. He laid stress on the importance of one’s good deeds. The stupas should be erected in holy places. If anybody placed garlands or perfume or saluted them, he will not only get peace of mind but also profit and joy.
Q4. Name any three places where the Stupas have been built. 3
Ans. The stupas were built at many places. The most important stupas existed at Bharhut, Sanchi, and Sarnath.
THE SYSTEM OF VARNAS
This is Al-Biruni’s account of the system of varnas: The highest caste is the Brahmana, of whom the books of the Hindus tell us that they were created from the head of Brahman. And as the Brahman is only another name for the force called nature, and the head is the highest part of the ......body, the Brahmana is the choice part of the whole genus. Therefore, the Hindus consider them the very best of mankind. The next caste is the Kshatriya who were created, as they say, from the shoulders and hands of Brahman. Their degree is not much below that of the Brahmana. After them, follow the Vaishya, who were created from the thigh of Brahman. The Sudras were created from his feet. Between the latter two classes, there is no very great distance. Much, however, as these classes differ from each other, they live together in the same towns and villages, mixed together in the same houses and lodgings.
Q1. Explain Al-Biruni’s account of the system of varnas.
Ans. According to Al-Biruni, the higher caste is the Brahmana who was created from the head of Brahma. Hindus consider them the very best of mankind. The second caste is the Kshatriya who were created from the shoulders and hands of Brahman. They are followedby the vaishya, who are created from the thigh of Brahman. The last caste was the Shudra who was created from his feet.
Q2. Do you consider this type of division justified? Explain with reasons.
Ans No, such type of division is not justified because no one is high or low by birth. Men became high or low by their own karma.
Q3. How was the system not quite rigid in the real life? Explain.
Ans It is right that this system was not quite rigid in real life because these castes live together in the same towns and villages, mixed together in the same house and lodgings.
Hope these questions were helpful to you. If you want further study material for your upcoming CBSE Class 12 History Exam 2023, please refer to the related topics below.
- CBSE Class 12 History Syllabus 2022-2023 PDF
- CBSE Class 12 History Deleted Syllabus 2022-23
- CBSE Class 12 History Previous Year Question Papers PDF Download
- CBSE Class 12 History Sample Paper 2022-23