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How to prepare English for CDS Exam 2016

Feb 2, 2016 17:28 IST

    Important Grammar Rules

    Adverbs
    An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb it “qualifies” or “modifies” a verb.

    Important Rules

    Rule 1:  The adverb is ‘too much’ is used with the nouns and ‘much too’ is used with adjectives.
    •Too much pain/ Too much insincerity ( Nouns)
    •Much too painful/  Much too careless(Adjectives)

    Rule 2: Before the word ‘Enough’ an adjective under positive form should be used.
    •She is enough lucky to get the job.(wrong)
    •She lucky enough to get the job. (right)

    Rule 3: The adverb quite should not be used with the adjective ‘Handsome’.
    •He is quite handsome.(wrong)
    •He is very handsome. (right)

    Rule 4:  The adverb ‘late’ indicates the time and lately means recently.
    •He was punished for coming lately.
    •He was punished for coming late.

    Rule 5:  When we begin a sentence with ‘seldom / never/hardly/rarely/scarcely/barely/neither/never should the rule of inversion be applied an auxiliary verb is used before the subject.
    •Hardly he goes to school.(wrong)
    •Hardly does he go to school. (right)
    •No sooner the bell rings than all the boys go to their class rooms.(wrong)
    •No sooner does the school bell ring, than all the boys go to their class rooms. (right)

    Rule 6:  The adverbial phrase ‘No less than’ should be used with the uncountable nouns whereas ‘No fewer than’ is used with countable nouns.
    •There  were no  less than forty  people who  were killed  in the accident.(wrong)
    •No fewer  than forty  people were  killed  in accident (right)

    Rule 7:  The adverb (As) is not used after call and consider.
    •He called me as a fool.(wrong)
    •He called me a fool. (right)

    Rule 8:  The derived objectives such as interested/ pleased/ satisfied/ delighted/ are used with ‘much’ but not ‘very’
    • I am very  interested  to play cricket .(wrong)
    • I am much interested  to play cricket (right)

    Rule 9:  The adverb ‘very’ is used with positive adjectives and ‘much’ with comparative adjective forms.
    •He is very clever to understand it (right)
    •He is much clever to understand it. (wrong)
    Rule 10: ‘very’ much should be used with comparative forms.
    •It is very much better to stay here tonight.

    CONJUCNTIONS

    Rule 1:  The co-relative conjunctions are used in pairs.
    •Not only- but also, Either-or, Neither –nor, both-and, though- yet, whether- or.

    Rule 2:  After the adverbs ‘hardly’ / scarcely’ the conjunction ‘when or before should be used.

    Rule 3:  After ‘Rather/other. The subordinating conjunction.  ‘Than should be used.

    Rule 4: After the subordinating conjunction ‘lest’ the auxilary’should’ is used.

    Rule 5:  The connecting word ‘that’ is used with the adjective phrase ‘the same /the only/ superlative adjectives/all.

    Rule 6: The conjunction ‘or’ is used with not/ never.

    Rule 7: with the word ‘such’ the connective ‘that’ may be used.

    Rule 8:  Until: denotes time & unless:  denotes condition.

    Rule 9: After the connective ‘because’ the words ‘so/therefore/as’ are not used.

    Rule 10:  The adverb ‘Not’ should not be used with the connective ‘till/unless/lest/until/ in that clause.

    PREPOSITIONS

    Rule 1: Across
    •My cousin  lives  across the river
    •The boy swam across the river.
    •He threw the luggage across his shoulders.

    Come across
     
    •When I was going to market, I came across an old friend.
    •I suddenly came across him.(wrong)
    •I came across him. (right)

    Rule 2: Between

    •Used  for two  persons/things
    •She is sitting between Sita and Gita

    Among
    •Used  with more  than two  persons/things
    •The principal distributed the prizes among the winners.

    Rule 3:  During – denotes duration
    •During the war, many people suffered hardship.

    Rule 4:  From:  is used with past/future tenses.
    •I stayed there from Monday to Thursday.
    •I will start my preparation from Monday next.

    Rule 5:  off- denotes ‘separation’
    •A button has come off.
    •He is off duty today.

    Rule 6:  After a preposition, a pronoun under objective case should be used.
    •He depends on  I (wrong)
    •He depends on me (right)

    Rule 7:  When two words are connected by and / or etc the preposition should be mentioned clearly to be used with them.
    •He was surprised at as well as pleased with her performance.
    • She is conscious  and engaged in her work  (wrong)
    •She is conscious of and  engaged  in her work (right)

    Rule 8:  No preposition should be used with the noun ‘Home except’ when it is followed by an adjective in the possessive case, say go to home/ arrive home/reach home/get home.
    •I went to his home/ he went home.
    •He decided to go to Krishna’s home.

    Rule 9:  
    After transitive verbs suchas‘Discuss/Describe/reach/order/tell/demand/attach/resemble/ridicule etc.  No preposition is used. The verbs directly take an object.
    •The poet  describes  about the beauty of nature (wrong)
    •The poet describes the beauty of nature.

    Rule 10: After the verb ‘say/suggest/ propose /speak/explain/reply/complain/talk/listen/write’ the proposition “to” should be used  if any object is used.
    •You never  wrote me (wrong)
    •You never wrote to me (right)

    Rule 11: Since:  denotes the point of time
                  For:  denotes period of time
    •He is working in the bank for the past 3 years.
    •He has been working in the bank for the past 3 years.

    Rule 12: After the verb “Enter” the preposition “into” should not be used except when it is used with reference to agreement or conversation.
    •He entered into premises without any permission.
    •He entered the premises without any permission.

    Rule 13: Wait for:  Await
    •He is awaiting  for the reply.(wrong)
    •He is waiting the reply (right)

    Despite- inspite of

    •Despite of hard work , he failed  in the examination (wrong)
    •Despite his hard work  he failed  in the examination (right)
    •This book comprises of 5 chapters.
    •This book  consists of 5 chapters

    Rule 14: Dispose of- sell away.
    •He disposed off his scooter (wrong)
    •He disposed of his scooter (right)

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