Class 12 Economics NCERT textbook (PDF of all chapters) is available here. With this article, you can access chapter-wise PDFs of Class 12 Economics NCERT textbook. Here we have provided the latest edition of Class 12 Economics NCERT textbook. Links to access PDFs are given below.
NCERT Books for Class 12 Economics (Hindi & English): Introductory Microeconomics
NCERT Books for Class 12 Economics (Hindi & English): Introductory Macroeconomics
Important Topics of CBSE Class 12 Economics:
⇒ What is Macroeconomics?
⇒ Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
⇒ Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income - Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
⇒ Aggregates related to National Income:
⇒ Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP, GDP Deflator.
⇒ GDP and Welfare
⇒ Money - meaning and supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
⇒ Money creation by the commercial banking system.
⇒ Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
⇒ Aggregate demand and its components.
⇒ Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal). Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. ⇒ Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
⇒ Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.
⇒ Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.
⇒ Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
⇒ Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
⇒ Balance of payments account - meaning and components; balance of payments deficit- meaning.
⇒ Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating. Determination of exchange rate in a free market.
⇒ A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
⇒ Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.
⇒ Economic Reforms since 1991:
⇒ Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST
⇒ Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;
⇒ Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
⇒ Rural development: Key issues - credit and marketing - role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming
⇒ Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
⇒ Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and
⇒ Policies- A critical assessment;
⇒ Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on
⇒ Resources and Environment, including global warming
⇒ A comparison with neighbours: India and Pakistan, India and China
⇒ Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human
⇒ Development Indicators