It is mandatory in the recent times that in banking examinations, you will certainly get questions from passages on economic and social issues, business and finance, banking etc taken from famous newspapers such as The Hindu, The Economic Times, The Business Standard, The Business Line, The Times of India etc. Here, the banking team of Jagranjosh.com, is presenting to you a passage for Reading Comprehension taken from ‘The Hindu’ (dated October 19th, 2016). This will help you a lot in your preparation for the upcoming examinations.
Question (1-10): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Some words / phrases are printed in bold in order to help you locate them while answering some of the questions
On September 22, Yahoo! announced that the personal data of half a billion users had been stolen in 2014. The theft of data was attributed to “state-sponsored” hackers, which some informed sources in California and Washington, D.C. said meant the Chinese secret service. Subsequently, claims emerged about a cracker selling personal information of Yahoo! account users on the dark Web.
The company’s failure to discover or report the loss for two years will raise enormous problems for its embattled chief executive, Marissa Mayer, not to mention its covert participation in the surveillance of the incoming emails of its users. But it will be even more costly for the U.S. telecom giant, Verizon, which agreed to pay a bargain basement amount of $4.8 billion for the company in July. In the U.S., class action litigation for consumers’ damages from the loss of their private information (including mobile phone numbers, passwords, and addresses) is inevitable, and will be costly: Yahoo! may ultimately owe the people harmed by this theft far more than Verizon was willing to pay for it.
But this is not just a story from afar for Indian citizens following the controversy about the onset of Aadhaar. Despite a crystal clear prohibition issued by the Supreme Court against making Aadhaar registration mandatory, the Indian government and enthusiastic parties in both State governments and industry have proceeded to adopt Aadhaar-based technology and impose requirements for Aadhaar registration for social services and benefits — from educational scholarships to booking railway tickets.
Investigations have revealed that dozens of Aadhaar requirements are in tension with the Supreme Court’s order. Contempt petitions brought against agencies for flouting the order will soon be heard by the Supreme Court. When the judges hear those petitions, they should be keeping Yahoo! in their thoughts.
The Yahoo! breach made news around the world primarily because of its scale: it’s really hard to lose the data on 500 million people. But not for Aadhaar. When completed, Aadhaar’s database will cover the world’s second largest population. If (or when) the database is compromised, it will not be possible for people to change their passwords. Biometric data is essentially unchangeable. Whether the retinal data currently stored, or the entire human genomes that may eventually be stored there, a breach in the Aadhaar data store will disperse information crucially identifying each Indian and that cannot be modified in response to the loss.
So, if Aadhaar is breached, what is the plan for the morning after the breach? Despite all the puffery, and all the claims of social subsidies immune to corruption and payments systems offering convenience to the unbanked millions, no one has so far intimated how Aadhaar’s proponents suggest we manage the obvious risk that stares us all in the face if Aadhaar registration becomes mandatory for most social purposes.
The plan cannot be for perfect security, operating flawlessly forever, for Aadhaar. No government can at present promise perfect security for even its most critical personnel data. No “platform” company, with all the immense profits earned from processing the data of hundreds of millions of customers, can claim to guarantee perfect security of customer data. No Indian citizen can, or should, trust a story in which Aadhaar data security is never breached.
Until we can see that the government has a realistic plan to manage the risks involved in placing all Indians’ proof of identity in one big box, making Aadhaar registration mandatory means imposing on every Indian citizen an unmanaged, possibly unmanageable, risk of digital environment catastrophe. Imposing permanent damage on the entire society because entrepreneurs and civil servants were in a hurry, because they couldn’t wait for the sober second thoughts imposed by the rule of law, even for the best of modernizing and reformist motives, is a price far too high to pay. And until there is national privacy legislation, with a real system for making parties pay damages when they injure individuals by losing their critical personal information, the courts may have no opportunity or power to deal with the consequences of poor planning and hasty public policy after the fact.
Only the Supreme Court’s clarity and willingness to back its order with enforcement ensure that law — rather than public relations and the optimistic talk of the start-up culture — stands between our society and the consequences of hubris.
So when the judges convene to hear argument on the Aadhaar motions, they should have that emphatic punctuation at the end of Yahoo! very firmly in mind.
1. Which among the following best explains the problem faced by Yahoo at present according to the information given in the passage?
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: According to the passage, Yahoo is in a fix because it has recently admitted that the data of around 500 million people have been hacked by the hackers and according to the management of the company, these are state sponsored hackers and especially Chinese hackers. The company has come forward with this disclosure after almost two years of the actual incident.
2. What is the opinion of the author regarding the Aadhaar cards being made mandatory in India in case of social security schemes benefits?
Solution: Option (5)
Explanation: According to the passage, the author wants the SC to take into consideration the fact that Yahoo could not protect the data of 500 million people and Aadhaar database will be for around the second largest population of the world. This makes it vulnerable to threats if not managed properly. It makes option (5) the right choice among the given options.
3. Why is Aadhaar data theft considered more serious compared to the Yahoo data theft reported recently by the company?
Solution: Option (4)
Explanation: According to the given passage, Aadhaar Database, when completed, will have the second largest population in a country in the world in it and the scale of the total database will be much more compared to the whole Yahoo database and at the same time, Yahoo database was about details that can be changed but Aadhaar database contains biometric data such as retina scan etc which can never be altered. That is why, the theft of Aadhaar data will be more serious as compared to the Yahoo case. This makes option (4) the right choice among the given options.
4. What should the Supreme Court do in case of delivering judgment regarding the issue of Aadhaar card being made mandatory to avail of social security benefits, according to the author?
Solution: Option (4)
Explanation: According to the author, the SC should bear in mind that if something like data theft can happen to Yahoo database, it may have the same effect on the Aadhaar database being maintained by the government. This will be more serious as compared to the Yahoo case because of the scale of the case and number of people involved considering the population of India. This makes option (4) the right choice among the given options.
5. Why does the author think that it is not possible for the government to ensure that the Aadhaar data will be safe forever?
Solution: Option (5)
Explanation: According to the passage, the author is convinced that there is nothing called perfect security because if Yahoo can happen, the same may happen to the Aadhaar database as well and it will be detrimental to the national security and that is the argument of the author regarding making Aadhaar cards mandatory or not in availing social security schemes related benefits. This makes option (5) the right reason among the given options.
6. Why is Verizon in a fix regarding the data theft case involving 500 million users of the Yahoo database?
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The US telecom giant, Verizon, has been in a fix because it is the company that made bids in July 2016 to acquire the stakes in Yahoo in a deal involving $4.8 billion and now its name is associated with the case involving the Yahoo database. The company is also facing questions over the issue of data theft and it maligns the image of the company. This makes option (3) the right choice among the given options.
7. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘breach’ as used in the passage?
Solution: Option (1)
Explanation: According to the given passage, the word has been used to indicate that there has been violation in the law observation regarding security breach in case of Yahoo database case whereas the same may happen in case of Aadhaar database as well in the country. This makes option (1) the right choice among the given options.
8. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘convenience’ as used in the passage?
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: According to the passage, the given word has been used to imply that using Aadhaar card will make the benefit of social sector schemes accessible to the unbanked millions of the country without any leakage. This is great news for the government of the country both fiscally and politically. This makes option (3) the right choice among the given options.
9. Which among the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘embattled’ as used in the passage?
Solution Option (2)
Explanation: In the given passage, the word has been used to imply that the chief executive officer of Yahoo has constantly been in criticism by the experts for various reasons. That makes option (2) the right choice among the given options as the opposite of the given word.
10. Which among the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘catastrophe’ as used in the passage?
Solution: Option (1)
Explanation: In the given passage, the word has been used to imply that the breach of security in case of Aadhaar card data will be disastrous for the government and that will compromise national interest as well. This makes option (1) the right choice as the opposite of the given word among the given options.