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Modern History Quiz for IAS Exam: Economic Impact of British Rule II

May 10, 2017 19:49 IST

    Modern History of India for IASIn IAS Prelims Exam, under the subject History, large number of questions asked from the Modern History of India. Here, in this article, we have provided important Modern History quiz for IAS Prelims Exam.

    Modern History Questions for IAS Prelims- Economic Impact of the British Rule I

    1. The growing commercialisation of agriculture during British period helped the money- lender-cum-merchant to exploit the cultivator. Consider the following statements regarding the status of the cultivators:
    I. The poor peasants were forced to sell their produce just after the harvest and at whatever price they could get as they had to meet in time the demands of the Government, the landlord, and the money-lender.
    II. A large share of the benefit of the growing trade in agricultural products was reaped by the merchant, who was very often also the village money-lender.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. Only II
    c. Both I and II
    d. Neither I nor II

    Answer: c
    Explanation:

    The growing commercialisation of agriculture also helped the money- lender-cum-merchant to exploit the cultivator. The poor peasant was forced to sell Iiis produce just after the harvest and at whatever price he could get as he had to meet in time the demands of the Government, the landlord, and the money-lender,. This placed him at the mercy of the grain merchant, who was in a position to dictate terms and who purchased his produce at much less than the market price. Thus a large share of the benefit of the growing trade m agricultural products was reaped by the merchant, who was very often also the village money-lender.

    The loss of land and the over-crowding of land caused by de-industria- lisation and lack of modern industry compelled the landless peasants and ruined artisans and handicraftsmen to become either tenants of the money-lenders and zamindars by paying rack-rent or agricultural labourers at starvation wages. Thus the peasantry was crushed under the triple burden of the Government, the zamindar or landlord, and the money-lender. After these three had taken their share not much was left for the cultivator and his family to subsist on. It has been calculated that in 1950-51 land rent and money-lenders‟ interest amounted to Rs. 1400 crores or roughly equal to one-third of the total agricultural produce for the year. The result was that the impoverishment of the peasantry continued as also an increase in the incidence of famines. People died in millions whenever droughts or floods caused failure of crops and produced scarcity.

    IAS Prelims Exam: ANCIENT HISTORY Study Material

    2. Consider the following statements regarding the ruin of old zamindars and rise of new landlordism during British era:
    I. The heaviness of land revenue—the Government claimed ten-elevenths of the rental—and the rigid law of collection, tinder which the zamindari estates were ruthlessly sold ill case of delay in payment of revenue, worked havoc for the first few years.
    II. By 1815 nearly half of the landed property of Bengal had been transferred from the old zamindars, who had resided in the villages and who had traditions of showing some consideration to their tenants, to merchants and other moneyed classes.
    III. The Permanent Settlement in North Madras and the Ryotwari Settlement in the rest of Madras were equally harsh on the local zamindars.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. II and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The first few decades of British rule witnessed the ruin of most of the old zamindars in Bengal and Madras. This was particularly so with Warren Hastings‟ policy of auctioning the right of revenue collection to the highest bidders, The Permanent Settlement of 1793 also had a similar tact in the beginning. The heaviness of land revenue—the Government claimed ten-elevenths of the rental—and the rigid law of collection, tinder which the zamindari estates were ruthlessly sold ill case of delay in payment of revenue, worked havoc for the first few years. Many of the great zamindars of Bengal were utterly ruined.

    By 1815 nearly half of the landed property of Bengal had been transferred from the old zamindars, who had resided in the villages and who had traditions of showing some consideration to their tenants, to merchants and other moneyed classes, who usually lived in towns and who were quite ruthless in collecting to the last pie what Was due from the tenant irrespective of difficult circumstances, Being utterly unscrupulous and possessing little sympathy for the tenants, they began to subject the latter to rack-renting and ejectment. The Permanent Settlement in North Madras and the Ryotwari Settlement in the rest of Madras were equally harsh on the local zamindars.

    IAS Prelims Exam: MEDIEVAL HISTORY Study Material

    3. Consider the following statements regarding the stagnation and deterioration of Agriculture during British period:
    I. Indian agriculture began to stagnate as a result of overcrowding of agriculture, excessive land revenue demand, growth of landlordism, increasing indebtedness, and the growing impoverishment of the cultivators.
    II. Overcrowding of agriculture and increase in sub-infeudation led to subdivision and fragmentation of land into small holdings most of which could not maintain their cultivators.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. Only II
    c. Both I and II
    d. Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    As a result of overcrowding of agriculture, excessive land revenue demand, growth of landlordism, increasing indebtedness, and the growing impoverishment of the cultivators, Indian agriculture began to stagnate and even deteriorate resulting in extremely low yields per acre.

    Overcrowding of agriculture and increase in sub-infeudation led to subdivision and fragmentation of land into small holdings most of which could not maintain their cultivators.
    The extreme poverty of the overwhelming majority of peasants left them without any resources with which to improve agriculture by using better cattle and seeds, more manure and fertilizers, and improved techniques of production. Nor did the cultivator, rack-rented by both the Government and the landlord, have any incentive to do so. After all the land he cultivated was rarely his properly and the bulk of the benefit which agricultural improvements would bring was likely to be reaped by the horde of absentee landlords and money lenders. Subdivision and fragmentation of land also made it difficult to effect improvements.

    4. The first textile mill was started by Cowasjee Nanabhoy in 1853 in which of the following cities?
    a. Mumbai
    b. Kolkata
    c. Madras
    d. Chennai

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    An important development in the second half of the 19th century was the establishment of large-scale machine-based industries in India. The machine age in India started when cotton textile, jute and coal mining industries were started in the 1850‟s. The first textile mill was started in Bombay by Cowasjee Nanabhoy in 1853 and his associates. The Company was designed by Sir William Fairbaim. This mill began production on 7 February 1856 under the supervision of British engineers and skilled cotton operatives.

    5. The first Jute mill was started in which of the following place in India?
    a. Kolkata
    b. Rishra
    c. Madras
    d. Mumbai

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The first textile mill was started in Bombay by Cowasjee Nanabhoy in 1853, and the first jute mill in Rishra (Bengal) in 1855 These industries expanded slowly but continuously, In 1879 there were 56 cotton textile mills in India employing nearly 43,000 persons. In 1882 there were 20 jute mills, most of them in Bengal employing nearly 20,000 persons. By 1905, India had 206 cotton mills employing nearly 196,000 persons. In 1901 there were over 36 jute mills employing nearly 115,000 persons.

    The coal mining industry employed nearly one lakh persons m 1906. Other mechanical industries which developed during the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were cotton gins and presses, rice, flour and timber mills, leather tanneries, woollen textiles, paper and sugar mills, iron and steel works, and such mineral industries as salt, mica and saltpetre. Cement, paper, matches, sugar and glass industries developed during the 1930s. Bat all these industries had a very stunted growth.

    History Complete Study Material for IAS Prelims Exam

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