Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Natural Ecosystem II

Environment and Ecology remained as a leading section of IAS Prelims Exam in terms of number of questions asked every year. The IAS aspirants should adopt better strategy for the preparation of Environment and Ecology during their IAS Preparation. Here, we have provided Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Prelims Exam.

Created On: Sep 19, 2016 18:08 IST

In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, the subject Environment and Ecology considered as the one of the most important sections among all the subjects of UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The UPSC IAS aspirants required to prepare this subject very well because of growing importance of this subject at global level. So, here we have created Multiple Choice Questions of Environment and Ecology based on the topic Global Warming for UPSC IAS Preparation.

1. Consider following statement about the estuary
I)    Estuary is place where the river fresh waster meets with ocean water
II)    This area is highly productive
III)    This area is highly unproductive
IV)    All of the above

Which of above the statements is/are true?
a.    I) only
b.    II) only
c.    I) and II)
d.    III)

Answer: c


An estuary is a place where a river or a stream opens into the sea.  It is a partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of the river where its fresh water carrying fertile silt and runoff from the land mixes with the salty sea water

•    It  represents  an ecotone between fresh water and marine ecosystem and shows a variation of salinity due to mixing of sea water with fresh water

•    Estuaries are very dynamic and productive ecosystems since the river flow, tidal range and sediment distribution is continuously changing in them. Examples of estuaries are river mouths, coastal bays, tidal marshes, lagoons and deltas.

2. What percent of area in the plain should be under forest?
a.    21 %
b.    25%
c.    17%
d.    33%

Answer: d


National Forest Policy has recommended that for maintaining the ecological balance there should be 33 % area under the forest in plain areas. But present forest cover in Indian is around 21-22 %.

The national goal should be to have a minimum of one-third of the total land area of the country under forest or tree cover. In the hills and in mountainous regions, the aim should be to maintain two-third of the area under such cover in order to prevent erosion and land degradation and to ensure the stability of the fragile eco-system.

Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Global Warming

3. Biodiversity Hotspots are characterized on the basis of:
a.    Endemic flowering plant and threat perception
b.    Endemic flowering plant
c.    Species of flowering plants
d.    None of above

Answer.  a


Hot spots are the regions which show maximum biodiversity, richness of species and endemic forms. These areas are rich of plant species and these are endemic to this area. Endemism implies the presence of species in particular area only.

The Western Ghats of India are one among the 25 hot spots of the world. 25 terrestrial hot spots have been identified for the conservation of biodiversity.  They occupy 1.4% of the earth’s surface and 20% of worlds the human population lives in these areas.   Western ghats and Eastern Himalayas are two hot spots of India.

4. Consider the following statements
1. The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of mangroves.
2.  World Wetlands Day is observed on 2 February.

Which of the statements given above is/are are correct?
a.    1 only
b.    2 only
c.    1 and 2
d.    Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b


The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.

World Wetlands Day is observed on 2 February. World Wetland Day marks the date of the signing of the Convention on Wetlands on 2 February 1971.

5. Consider the following statements regarding forest cover in India
1. Area occupied by dense forest cover is more in India than open forest cover.
2. Mangroves occupy only 1% of countries geographic area.

Select the correct answer from the following codes
a. Only 1
b. Only 2
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: a


First statement is true. Mangroves occupy only 0.14 percent of country’s geographic area. Forests are large areas supporting rich growth of trees. Depending on the climate and type of trees they are generally grouped into:

(i) Tropical rain forests: These are found in the high rain fall areas on either side of the equator. Such forests are found in the western coast of India, scattered in South East Asia, some parts of Africa and South America.

(ii) Temperate deciduous forests: They occur mostly in northwest, central and eastern Europe, eastern North America, north China, Korea, Japan, far eastern Russia and Australia. Trees of deciduous forests shed their leaves in autumn and new foliage grows in spring.

(iii) Boreal or north coniferous forests: Coniferous forests are also known as ‘Taiga’. They extend as a continuous belt across North America and north Eurasia below the arctic tundra. There is no counterpart of these forests in southern hemisphere as there is no land at this latitude. Climate is cold with long, harsh winter, with mean annual temperature below 00C. The soils are acidic and poor in nutrients.

6. Consider the following statements
1. Fish ranching is a practice of keeping which fishes in captivity for the first few years in floating cages in coastal lagoons and releasing them from captivity into water bodies.
2. Marine resources include gulfs, coral reefs, and mangroves.

Select the correct answer from the following codes
a. Only 1
b. Only 2
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c


In fish ranching adults are harvested when they return for spawning to the lagoons. Marine resources include Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, numerous gulfs, coral reefs, mangroves and brackish waters like lagoons and Chilka lakes in Orissa.

7. Which of the following is/are the limitations of aquaculture?
1. Aquaculture tanks or reservoirs are often getting contaminated after a few years.
2. Destroys mangrove forests or coastal vegetation.
3. Produces large amounts of fish wastes that pollute water bodies

Select the correct answer from the following codes
a. Only 1
b. Only 1 and 2
c. Only 2 and 3
d.1, 2 and 3

Answer: d


An aquatic ecosystem refers to plant and animal communities’ occurring in water bodies. Aquatic ecosystems are classified on the basis of salinity into following two types:

(i) Freshwater: Water on land which is continuously cycling and has low salt content is known as fresh water and its study is called limnology.

(ii) Marine: Pertains to the seas and oceans including marine organisms.

Other limitations of aquaculture: Loss of native aquatic biodiversity. As it replaced by monoculture of a commercially important fish species, Aquaculture fishes are very sensitive to pesticide runoff from croplands, in aquaculture ponds high population density is maintained that makes them highly vulnerable to diseases leading to total collapse of the crop.

8. Consider the following statements about the biodiversity hotspot?
I)    Norman Mayer is associated with scientists responsible for making the list of biodiversity hotspot
II)    These areas are biodiversity rich and species are endemic to this area
III)    Biodiversity is under the threat

Which of above the statement is/are true?
a.    I
b.    I and II
c.    I, II and III
d.    III

Answer: c


Norman Myers, a British Ecologist, developed the concept of hot spots in 1988 to designate priority areas for in situ conservation. According to him, the hot spots are the richest and the most threatened reservoirs of biodiversity on the earth.

Twenty-five biodiversity hot spots have been identified in the world. These hot spots are characterized by posing exceptionally high biodiversity. For example the total area of these 25 hot spots cover 1.4% of the total land area, support 44% of plant and 35% terrestrial vertebrates.

Click here for IAS Prelims: GS Environment and Ecology: Study Material

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