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Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Water and Energy Conservation

Sep 30, 2016 10:52 IST

    In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, the subject Environment and Ecology considered as the one of the most important sections among all the subjects of UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The UPSC IAS aspirants required to prepare this subject very well because of growing importance of this subject at global level. So, here we have created Multiple Choice Questions of Environment and Ecology based on the topic Global Warming for UPSC IAS Preparation.

    1.    Consider the following statements regarding the water as a natural resource:
    I.    Water is an indispensable, natural resource as no life can exist without water and it is also renewable and reusable.
    II.    It is estimated that nearly three fourths of earth is covered with water of the ocean, seas, rivers, lakes, snow, glaciers and ground water.
    III.    Only less than 1% of this water is fresh water and usable for living organisms including humans.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Water is an indispensable, natural resource as no life can exist without water. It is also renewable and reusable. Scientists estimate that nearly three fourths of earth is covered with water of the ocean, seas, rivers, lakes, snow, glaciers and ground water. However, only less than 1% of this water is fresh water and usable for living organisms including humans.

    Though water cycle throughout the year, everywhere, and it is being overused and some of it is even wasted. Hence, water conservation has become very necessary. At present, one-third of the global population is facing acute water shortage.

    At present, one-third of the global population is facing acute water shortage.  In the villages, women have to walk long distances to fetch water. In certain hilly areas, women may have to walk as much as ten kilometres uphill to reach a well. According to UN estimates, by 2025, almost two-third of the world will face shortage of potable (fit for drinking) water. We have to be cautious about using water and devise methods of conserving it. But first let us understand as to what made water scarce.

    Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Natural Ecosystem II

    2.    Which of the following factors are responsible for increasing water demand?
    a.    Expansion of irrigation
    b.    Increasing demand by industry
    c.    Rising demand due to growing population
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Expansion of irrigation: India is an agricultural country hence plenty of water is needed for irrigation. 5.36 billion Cubic meter water was used for irrigation in the year 2000. It is 81% of the total water used. The remaining percentage (19%) of water was used for domestic, industrial and other purposes mentioned above. There has been a rapid increase in the irrigated area in India since independence. Thus the demand for irrigation in India has been increasing continuously.

    Industrial use of water: Most industries require water at various stages of production of goods and products. Water is used in industries in both consumptive and non-consumptive ways. Be it agro-based industries (cotton, textile, jute, sugar and paper) or mineral based industries (iron, steel, chemical and cement).
    Water is needed in large amounts during the production process or as heat exchanger for cooling various machine parts which get heated up during the production process.

    Rising demand for growing population: Population of India has been increasing continuously and it has increased three times since independence. Due to this increase in population, the demand for water has increased. We need water for drinking, for flushing or draining sewage or human waste, domestic use, irrigation, industries.

    Changing life style: Industrial development led to economic development. Purchasing capacity of individuals has increased. Thus the life style of people changed and the standard of living has gone up.

    Large number of attractive appliances, gadgets and fittings for kitchen and bathroom are available in the market and people are generally tempted to use them, for example taps and showers are designed in such a way that large amounts of water come out when they are turned on. Washing machines and dishwashers use large amounts of water but are convenient and suit the present day life style.

    3.    Which of the following country receives highest rainfall in the world?
    a.    India
    b.    Brazil
    c.    UK
    d.    Malaysia

    Answer: b

    Explanation:


    India receive the second highest rainfall in the world, first being Brazil, but much less rain water infiltrates the soil or is retained to increase water table. A sizeable amount of water is drained as run off (moving out from the soil surface) draining into the sea.

    4.    Consider the following statements regarding reforestation, one of the methods for conservation of water:
    I.    Reforestation is the process of planting of trees on the deforested area or of increased tree cover from re-growth and planting of trees (plantations).
    II.    There is a continuous interchange of moisture between earth and atmosphere, constituting the hydrological cycle which has a major influence on rainfall distribution and temperature modification.
    III.    Plants play an important role in hydrological cycle through the process of transpiration.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    There is a continuous interchange of moisture between earth and atmosphere, constituting the hydrological cycle. The movement of water through the hydrological cycle has a major influence on rainfall distribution and temperature modification. Plants play an important role in hydrological cycle through the process of transpiration. In tropical forests, 75% of the annual precipitation is returned to the atmosphere by the plants.  Thus forests play a very important role in maintaining water balance of the soil and atmosphere. Forests play a protective function and conserve soil and water.

    Reforestation is the process of planting of trees on the deforested area or of increased tree cover from re-growth and planting of trees (plantations). Reforestation increases soil fertility by preventing soil erosion, prevents run-off of eroded soil into aquatic systems and prevents flooding. Thus reforestation plays a major role in conservation of water.

    5.    Which of the following method is suitable for conservation of water?
    a.    Reforestation
    b.    Ground water recharge
    c.    Water harvesting
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    We can do conservation of water by using various methods such as reforestation, re-use, recycle, increase water use efficiency, water harvesting and ground water recharge.

    Reforestation: There is a continuous interchange of moisture between earth and atmosphere, constituting the hydrological cycle. The movement of water through the hydrological cycle has a major influence on rainfall distribution and temperature modification. Plants play an important role in hydrological cycle through the process of transpiration. In tropical forests, 75% of the annual precipitation is returned to the atmosphere by the plants. Thus forests play a very important role in maintaining water balance of the soil and atmosphere. Forests play a protective function and conserve soil and water.

    Recycling of water: The wastewater from industrial or domestic sources can be used after proper treatment for irrigation, recharging ground water and even for industrial and municipal use.

    Agricultural lands close to cities can be irrigated with municipal wastewater. Household level recycled ‘grey water’ (untreated household water which does not come in contact with toilet waste) can be used for various purposes. Grey water from shower , bath, washbasins, laundry troughs and washing machines can be put to various uses to reduce pure water requirement. Pure water after used in bath and shower can be used for watering plants.

    Reuse of wastewater: Wastewater containing lots of nutrients. These nutrients may help the growth of plants when such water is used in irrigation. Reuse of wastewater occurs most effectively with on-site or small treatment system. The reuse option in the local context at the community level must be seriously considered.

    Water harvesting: Water harvesting is collecting rainwater that falls on a house or on and around any building and then putting it to use later on or simply replenishing the ground water by allowing the water to reach underground.

    Recharging of groundwater: The available groundwater is about 13-20 times as much as water available on surface. The groundwater consists of water contained in the soil or aquifers (underground natural water reservoir).

    6.    Consider the following statements regarding management of water resources:
    I.    Rain water is the major source of water for irrigation of agricultural fields in the country and for recharging the ground water.
    II.    Rain fall is restricted to three months in a year therefore rain water should be stored and use of ground water well planned as ground water is a renewable water source and gets replenished by natural process of recharge.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Rain water is the major source of water for irrigation of agricultural fields in the country and for recharging the ground water. Rain fall is restricted to three months in a year therefore rain water should be stored and use of ground water well planned as ground water is a renewable water source and gets replenished by natural process of recharge.

    Loss of water through seepage and evaporation, water wasted on weeds, cost of bringing water from ponds to place of use should be minimized.

    7.    Consider the following statements regarding the recharging of ground water:
    I.    Flood waters may be injected into aquifers (underground water reservoirs) through series of deep pits or ditches.
    II.    Small reservoirs and percolation tanks can be dug to hold runoff water recharging ground water.
    III.    Storm water, used water, domestic drains can be fed into pits, trenches, depressions to be filtered and percolated through the soil for recharging ground water.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Recharging of ground water can be done through:

    •    Flood waters may be injected into aquifers (underground water reservoirs) through series of deep pits or ditches.
    •    Small reservoirs and percolation tanks can be dug to hold runoff water recharging ground water.
    •    Rain water harvesting carried out by building power for recharging ground water.
    •    Storm water, used water, domestic drains can be fed into pits, trenches, depressions to be filtered and percolated through the soil for recharging ground water.
    •    De-siltation of canals and tanks should be done regularly.
    •    Pre-monsoon tillage of fields helps to conserve soil moisture.

    8.    Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding the treatment of waste water?
    a.    Proper treatment of domestic and municipal waste water which is rich in organic matter and pathogens material also helps to conserve water.
    b.    Treatment ensures the removal of pollutants but not germs and toxic elements.
    c.    Growing algae or floating masses of water hyacinth also helps in cleaning the water polluted by absorbing phosphates, nitrates and other nutrients.
    d.    None of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Removal of pollutants to transform polluted water into usable form:

    •    Proper treatment of domestic and municipal waste water which is rich in organic matter and pathogens material also helps to conserve water. Treatment ensures the removal of pollutants, germs and toxic elements.
    •    Growing algae or floating masses of water hyacinth also helps in cleaning the water polluted by absorbing phosphates, nitrates and other nutrients. These aquatic plants can be harvested for producing biogas.

    9.    Consider the following statements regarding the Ganga Action Plan (GAP):
    I.    Ganga Action Plan (GAP) is an ambitious and first of its kind river cleaning project.
    II.    The major cause of Ganga water pollution is unrestricted discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents all along its course.
    III.    Ganga Action Plan (GAP) has been launched by the Government of India to clean the river Ganga.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Ganga is the largest and most important Indian River. It is 2,525 Km long. The watershed of river Ganga spreads over ten Indian states. The major cause of Ganga water pollution is unrestricted discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents all along its course.

    Ganga Action Plan (GAP) is an ambitious and first of its kind river cleaning project. Ganga Action Plan (GAP) has been launched by the Government of India to clean the river Ganga. The first phase of the project was completed in 1993.

    10.    In which of the following year the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) was implemented?
    a.    1987
    b.    1991
    c.    1993
    d.    1999

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) was implemented in April, 1993 under the banner- "Yamuna ko Swachha bnana hai, hum sab ko haath batana hai".

    Yamuna is a major tributary of the river Ganga. Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) aims at cleaning and conserving water of the river Yamuna by removing pollutants from it.

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