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Heredity and Evolution-Important Questions & Preparation Tips

Jul 1, 2013 15:17 IST

    In this article you will get the clue that from where and how the questions are being framed from the chapter Heredity and Evolution. The experts of jagranjosh.com have full confidence that you will not miss any of the questions in the board exam as well as in competitive exams from this chapter if you will keep the following terms / question in your mind while studying

    • Where is hereditary information present?
    • Define alleles
    • Define gene and its function?
    • Explain the law of segregation with example?
    • Show the parental cross of a tall pea plant and a dwarf pea plant
    • Explain Mendel’s law of inheritance
    • What do the progeny of a tall plant with round seeds and a short plant with wrinkled seeds look like?
    • What happens when the F1 progeny obtained above are used to produce F2 progeny by self pollination?
    • How do genes work in pair?
    • Are the genes for tallness and dwarf different? Explain
    • A man having blood group A marries a woman having blood group O and they have a child. What will be the blood group of the child?
    • What do you understand by term variation? Name two human traits which show variation. How does the creation of variation in a species ensure its survival?
    • Does genetic combination of mother play a significant role in determining the sex of new born baby?
    • Mendel’s law of genetics states “of a pair of contrasted characters, only one can be represented in a gamete by its internal ‘factor’ give the name of this factor. State where these factors are found in gametes?
    • In a human, how many chromosomes are present in:

                 A brain cell?

                 A sperm in the testes?

                 An egg which has just been produced by the ovary?

                 A skin cell?

                 A fertilized egg?

    • In the F2 generation of a cross, progeny having different traits are produced in the ratio 3:1. State whether it is a monohybrid cross or a dihybrid cross? Give one example.
    • What are acquired traits and why they cannot be transferred from one generation to another?
    • What are fossils and how are they obtained? How do they act as an evidence of evolution?

               Match the following

                Column I                                            Column II

                Fossil                                               A famous evolutionist

                A theory of evolution                        Survival of fittest

              Probable ancestor of birds                  petrified remains of prehistoric life

                Charles Darwin                                father of genetics

               Gregor mendel                                 archaeopteryx

    • Can wings of a butterfly and the wings of a bat be considered homologous organs? Why and why not?
    • Determine how close two species are in evolution? Explain with the help of example.
    • What is meant by species? Give example.
    • Does geographical isolation of individuals of a species lead to the formation of a new species? Explain with example.
    • Only variation that confers an advantage to an individual organism will survive in a population”. Do u agree with the statement give reason.

               Match the following:

               Sterile flowers                                     Kohlrabi

               Arrested flower development Cauliflower

               Swollen parts                          Broccoli

                Larger leaves                           Kale

    • Why do we find very little variations among sugarcane plants?
    • Recent fossils are found close to the earth surface. Explain
    • What will be the blood groups of offspring’s produced by the parents having following genotype?

                 Male- IA I B

                 Female- IO IA

    • Number of contrasting visible character of garden pea used by mendel
    • Define contrasting character
    • Draw the flow chart for the independent inheritance of two separate traits that shape and color of a seed
    • Concept of acquired and inherited traits
    • The primitive atmosphere was oxidizing or reducing
    • Why are the small numbers of surviving tigers a cause of worry from the point of view of genetics?
    • Define the term speciation
    • List the factor that could lead to the rise of a new species
    • What is genetic drift?
    • Examples of homologous and analogous organs
    • The scientific name of man
    • Name the earliest member of human species
    • Go through the some questions given here as example and get an idea that how questions can be framed

        Q. Select the correct statement:

              a. Tendril of a pea plant and phylloclade of Opuntia are homologous

              b. Tendril of a pea plant and phylloclade of Opuntia are analogous

              c. Wings of birds and limbs of lizards are analogous

              d. Wings of birds and wings of bat are homologous

       Q. In which of the following ways is natural selection not analogous to artificial selection ?

              a .Natural selection depends upon the presence of variation, artificial selection does not.

              b. Natural selection occurs within populations, artificial selection does not.

              c. With natural selection 'picking' is due to the fit of an organism with its environment whereas in artificial selection, the breeder 'picks' which organisms will breed.

             d. There is a limit to how much change can be brought about by natural election, no such limit exists for artificial selection.

       Q. Select the statements that describe characteristics of genes :

             i.  Genes are specific sequence of bases in a DNA molecule

             ii.  A gene does not code for proteins

            iii. An individuals of a given species, a specific gene is located on a particular chromosome     
            iv. Each chromosome has only one gene

              a. (i) and (ii)

              b. (i) and (iii)

              c. (i) and (iv)

              d. (ii) and (iv)

     Q. New species may be formed if 

             i. DNA undergoes significant changes in germ cells

            ii.  chromosome number changes in the gamete

            iii. there is no change in the genetic material

           iv. mating does not take place

            a. (i) and (ii)

            b. (i) and (iii)

            c. (ii), (iii) and (iv)

            d. (i), (ii) and (iii)

       Q. A : Closely related species have few characteristics in common, B : Interbreeding among individuals of different populations of a species maintains a free flow of genes
                in these populations.

           a. 'A' Right, 'B' Right

           b.'A' Right, 'B' Wrong

           c. A' Wrong, 'B' Right

          d.'A' Wrong, 'B' Wrong

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