The IAS aspirants must study the approach of India to counter the problem of terrorism during their IAS Preparation. There is a greater chance of asking questions on such topics in IAS Mains Exam. Here, we have provided that how India made its law and foreign policies to counter the terrorism.
India’s Approach to solve the global menace of terrorism
India has long been affected by the menace of terrorism losing hundreds of lives, prevalence of organized crimes, inhibiting healthy development of many of its border states and so on. Owing to its adverse neighbors, India always remain at its toes to deal with the draconian terrorism. Being a democratic, liberal and soft power, India deals with the terrorism strictly within the ambit of national and international laws. Unlike, many western countries, India does not go for incessant killings and irresponsible attackings to uproot the terrorism (which in fact only exacerbate the problems). Most of its approaches are the hybridization of military actions and diplomatic negotiations. However, India does not have a fixed counter terrorism doctrine. Its actions are mostlyknee jerk reactions and the government takes short term measures more prominently after any terrorist attack rather than carving a meticulous plane. India's approach to solve the global menace of terrorism can be briefly discussed under following sub-headings:
1. National laws:
• Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act, 2004 (amended in 2008) -power to declare “any association that engages in activities that support any secessionist claims” or “disclaims, questions, disrupts” the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India as unlawful
• Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act,1958 - Use any kind of force (including lethal force) deemed necessary against the person who is “acting to disrupt the law and order. This is conditional on a prior warning from the security personnel.
• Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) - The Act defined what constituted a "terrorist act" and who a "terrorist" was, and granted special powers to the investigating authorities described under the Act. The act was repealed in 2004
• In addition to the above many acts have been enacted to prevent organized crimes and corruption. For example – Prevention of Corruption act, Maharashtra Control of
Organized Crimes Act (MCOCA)
2. International Diplomacy:
India has long fought and opposed the terrorism and its sources. However, India does not believe in attacking the whole country and region the terrorism is emanating from as it damages more innocents than the terrorists. Therefore, it focuses and assert more of diplomacy, isolation of countries supporting terrorism rather than war and violence. Indian diplomacy focuses on the vision that International terrorism cannot effectively be fought alone, as has been our experience so far. India whole-heartedly supports any United Nations actions to counter terrorism.
India urges and encourages all nations to join hands to combat it. India makes efforts to expose Pakistan sponsored 'proxy' war at world platform and appeals other nations of the world to apply pressure on Pakistan to fall in line. It highlights the aggressively the justness of India's cause and the support to terrorism by Pakistan, both through state and non-state players, as well as strive to isolate Pakistan on international platform.
India has also been pushing Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) since 1996 in UN. The proposed convention was intended to provide umbrella cover for situations not addressed by the existing sectoral conventions on terrorism, concluded under the auspices of the UN. The CCIT is described as the mother of all anti-terrorism conventions.
3. Counterterrorism Agencies:
The counterterrorism activities in India are mainly handled by a number of intelligence, military, and police organizations within the Indian government. Some of these are state police forces, paramilitary forces; Military services personnel like army, navy, air force etc.Paramilitary forces are specialized in naturelike CRPF in disturbed areas, BSF in border areas, NSG for countering terrorist attacks and so on. The army usually participates in counterterrorism operations as a last resort, though in Jammu and Kashmir they play a more consistent role. The intelligence agencies that monitor terrorist activities in India are The Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), acting as the external intelligence agency and the Intelligence Bureau (IB), collecting intelligence along with the military intelligence are functional in India.
Impact of ISIS on India
ISIS has been most lethal, organized and modern terrorist organizationwho are using social media, internet to propagate their ideology. Its autocracies and pandemonium is well known across the world, especially in the Middle East. However, India has not been affected by ISIS barring few sporadic incidents. Few Indian youth, after being influenced and hypnotized by the structured propaganda of ISIS, have joined ISIS forces in Iraq and Syria. In addition to this, Mehdi Masroor was operating the twitter handle of ISIS from Bangalore in India. Apart from all these, India has neither faced any violent assault nor any lone-wolf attack on its land by ISIS. However, ISIS wants to attack India and convert it into Islamic caliphate of Khorasan in future.
India’s Collaboration with other countries on this issue
India has persistently been collaborating with like minded countries of the world to end the menace of terrorism. It follows the UN and have always been supportive of its efforts to counter terrorism. India has signed various deals and agreements with plethora of countries for sharing terrorists intelligence, inhibiting organized crimes to cut the supportive infrastructure of terrorists, isolate countries supporting terrorism and so on. Some of them have been discussed below:
• The leaders of India and US have acknowledged the continued threat posed to human civilization by terrorism and condemn the recent terrorist incidents from Paris to Pathankot, from Brussels to Kabul. These two countries have signed joint declaration in combating the menace of terrorism.
• With Russia, India believes that there cannot be any justification for terrorism and this must be fought against without compromise and wherever it exists.India and Russia have signed a Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in combating terrorism in 2002 and a joint working group on Combating International Terrorism meets from time to time.
• Japan, along with India condemns terrorism in strongest terms in all its forms and manifestations in the spirit of 'zero tolerance'. The two countries keep calling upon all countries to implement the UNSC Resolution 1267 and other relevant resolutions designating terrorist entities.
• India also has cooperation with EU, Australia, Canada etc on cooperation in Counter-Terrorism, Cyber-security, Non-proliferation and Disarmament.
However, collaborations and cooperation with other countries have not been materialized substantially and India relies on itself on majority of it's counter terrorism activities.