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IAS Exam: Prelims Environment and Ecology Questions: Principles of Ecology Set I

Jan 29, 2016 13:29 IST

    Environment and Ecology has become indispensable for IAS Prelims Exam. Candidates cannot dispense with this section. In future also Importance of Environment and Ecology cannot be underestimated. Following are some MCQs that would help candidates to understand the kinds of questions they are going to face from Environment and Ecology section in IAS Prelims Exam:

    Q1. With reference to ecological succession which of the following is true?

    1. Primary succession takes very long time.

    2. Secondary succession starts in an area where soil is already present.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 2
    c.Both 1 and 2
    d.Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Primary succession takes long time because soil is to be formed during primary succession. Secondary succession is relatively fast as, the soil has necessary nutrients as well as large pool of seeds and dormant stages of organisms.

    Q2. Primary succession occurs in which of the following places?

    1. Emerging volcanic islands

    2. Lava flows

    3. Glacial moraines

    4. Newly formed deltas

    5. Sand dunes

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1 and 3
    b.Only 3, 4 and 5
    c.Only 4
    d.1,2 , 3, 4 and 5

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Primary Succession takes place over bare or unoccupied areas such as rock outcrop, Emerging volcanic islands, lava flows, glacial moraines, newly formed deltas, Sand dunes.

    Q3. Ecology defines

    a. Study of relationship of individual organisms with their environment

    b. Study of ecosystems

    c. Study of biome

    d. Study of relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environment

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Ecology not only deals with the study of relationship of individual organisms with their environment but also the study of populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes and biosphere as a whole.

    Q4. Consider the following statements

    1. Niche is specific habitat of species

    2. Teresterial, fresh water, estuarine, ocean are 4 major habitats of earth.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 2
    c.Both 1 and 2
    d.Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Niche is functional characteristics of species in its habitat. Habitat of a species is like address. Niche is activities and responses specific to the species.

    Q5. Which of the following are true about Niche?

    1. No two species in a habitat can have same niche.

    2. A niche is unique for a species.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 2
    c.Both 1 and 2
    d.Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: No two species in a habitat can have same niche. This is because if two species occupy the same niche they will compete with one another until one is displaced.

    Q6. Activities and responses specific to the species are referred to

     a. Habitat

     b. Niche

     c. Ecosystem

     d. Adaptation

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Habitat of a species is like its address i.e. where it lives, where niche can be thought of as its profession i.e. activities and response specific to the species.

    Q7. Which of the following are important resources in niches of animal

    1. Food

    2. Moisture

    3. Shelter

    4. Nutrients

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 , 3 and 4
    c.Only 1 and 3
    d.1,2,3 and 4

    Answer: c

    Explanation: For terrestrial animals food and shelter are important resources. For aquatic organisms moisture and nutrients are important resources.

    Q8. Which of the following are adaptations of aquatic flowering plants?

    1. Absence of wood formation

    2. Highly reduced root system

    3. Presence and absence of thorns on leaves and stems.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: In aquatic flowering plants absence of wood formation and highly reduced root system are adaptations to aquatic environment. Adaptations can be observed in structure or behaviour or physiology of an organism.

    Q9. Which of the following cannot be considered as adaptation?

    a.Shape of bird’s beak
    b.Thickness and thinness of fur
    c.Evergreen and deciduous nature of trees
    d.Capability of dogs breeding among themselves

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Variation is the capability of dog breeding among themselves and interbreeding  even though they appear to be different in appearance.

    Q10. From the pugmarks of animals which of the following information can be analysed?

    1. Presence of different species

    2. Identification of individual animals

    3. Sex ratio and age of large cats

    4. Population of large cats

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 4
    b.Only 1 and 4
    c.Only 2, 3 and 4
    d.1,2 , 3 and 4

    Answer: d

    Explanation: pugmarks of each individual animal are unique and different from one another. Study of pugmarks provides all the above mentioned information if carefully analysed.

    Click here for IAS Prelims: GS Environment and Ecology: Study Material

    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

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