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IAS Prelims Exam: Medieval History NCERT Questions: India in the First Half of the 17th Century III

May 21, 2016 14:53 IST

    Old edition of NCERT Books are still high in demand in terms of UPSC IAS Exam Preparation because it has extensive coverage of the topics given in the UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The IAS aspirants find it difficult to get an old edition NCERT book from market due to its unavailability in the market.

    Here, we have provided Multiple Choice Questions of Medieval Indian History which have been created from the old edition of NCERT book, go and check your level of your Preparation of IAS Prelims Exam.

    1. A mansabdar of Mughal period holding rank of 5000 was getting the salary about:

    a. Rs. 30000
    b. Ra. 20000
    c. Ra 3000
    d. Rs. 200

    Answer: a

    Explanation: For meeting these expenses, the Mughal mansabdars were paid handsomely. A manabdar with a rank or 5000 could get a salary of Rs. 30,000 per month, a mansabdar of 3000, Rs. 17,000, and of 1000, Rs. 200 per month. Even a humble sadi holding a rank of 100, could get Rs. 7,000 per year. Roughly a quarter of these salaries were spent on meeting the cost or the transport corps. Even then, the Mughal mansabdars formed the highest paid service in the world.

    2. Consider the following statements regarding the features of swar system during the Mughal period:

    I. For every contingent of ten men, the mansabdar was supposed to maintain twenty two or twenty horses.
    II. The cavalry was the main arm, replacement of horses during a march or during battle was considered vital, so much so, that a sawar with one horse only was considered a nim-sawar.
    III. The Mughals favoured mixed contingent with men drawn in fixed proportions from Irani and Turani Mughals, Indian Afghans and Rajputs.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. I and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Two features of the sawar system may be noted. For every contingent of ten men, the mansabdar was supposed to maintain twenty two or twenty horses. Since the cavalry was the main arm, replacement of horses during a march or during battle was considered vital, so much so, that a sawar with one horse only was considered a nim-sawar, i.e., half a sawar or one who had one leg on the ground. Secondly, the Mughals favoured mixed contingent with men drawn in fixed proportions from Irani and Turani Mughals, Indian Afghans and Rajputs.

    3. Who among the following Mughal rulers, the system of du-aspah sih-aspah started?

    a. Akbar
    b. Jahagir
    c. Shahjahan
    d. Aurangzeb

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Towards the end of Akbar's reign, the highest rank a noble could attain was raised from 5000 to 7000 and two premier nobles of the empire, Mirza Azi Koka and Raja Man Singh, were honoured with the rank of 7000 each. This limit was maintained till the end of Aurangzeb's reign. A number or other modifications were, however, carried out during the Jahangir’s period. This was the du-aspah sih-aspah system (literally, trooper with 2 or 3 horses) which implied that a mansabdar holding this -rank had maintain and was paid for double the quota of troopers indicated by his sawar rank.

    4. Consider the following statements regarding du-aspah sih-aspah started by jahagir:

    I. Jahangir introduced a system whereby selected nobles could be allowed to maintain a larger quota of troopers, without raising their zat rank.
    II. Du-aspah sih-aspah system (literally, trooper with 2 or 3 horses) which implied that a mansabdar holding this -rank had maintain and was paid for double the quota of troopers indicated by his sawar rank.
    III. A mansabdar holding a zat rank of 3000, and 3000 sawars du-aspah sih-aspah would be required to maintain 6000 troopers.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. I and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The average salary paid to a sawar was reduced by Jahangir, as we have noted above. Jahangir also introduced a system whereby selected nobles could be allowed to maintain a larger quota of troopers, without raising their zat rank. This was the du-aspah sih-aspah system (literally, trooper with 2 or 3 horses) which implied that a mansabdar holding this -rank had maintain and was paid for double the quota of troopers indicated by his sawar rank. Thus, a mansabdar holding a zat rank of 3000, and 3000 sawars du-aspah sih-aspah would be required to maintain 6000 troopers. Normally, no mansabdar was given a sawar rank which was higher than his zat rank.

    5. Consider the following statements regarding the modifications in the numbers of zat and swar done by Shah Jahan during his reign:

    I. Shah Jahan drastically reduced the number of sawars from the nobles who were required to maintain under him.
    II. A noble was expected to maintain a quota of only one-third of his sawar rank, and in some circumstance one-fourth or even one-fifth.
    III. The noble of Jahangir's reign who had the rank of 3000 zat, 3000 sawar, would maintain not more than 1000 troopers.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. I and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: A further modification, which comes to our notice during Shah Jahan's reign, was aimed at drastically reducing the number of sawars a noble was required to maintain. Thus, a noble was expected to maintain a quota of only one-third of his sawar rank, and in some circumstance one-fourth or even one-fifth. The noble of Jahangir's reign who had the rank of 3000 zat, 3000 sawar, would maintain not more than 1000 troopers. But this would be doubled, i.e., he would maintain 2000 troopers, if his rank was 3000 sawar du-aspah sih-aspah.

    6. With reference to the salaries of Mansabdar which of the following is not correct?

    a. The salaries of mansabdars were stated in rupees, they were generally not paid in cash, but by assigning them a jagir.
    b. The salaries of mansabdars were stated in rupees, they were generally paid in cash not by assigning them a jagir.
    c. Mansabdars preferred a jagir because cash payments were likely to be delayed and sometimes entailed a lot or harassment.
    d. For purposes of assigning jagirs the revenue department had to maintain a register indicating the assessed income (Jama) or various areas.

    Answer: b

    Explanation:  The salaries of mansabdars were stated in rupees, they were generally not paid in cash, but by assigning them a jagir. The working of the jagirdari system under Akbar has been already discussed. Mansabdars preferred a jagir because cash payments were likely to be delayed and sometimes entailed a lot or harassment. For purposes of assigning jagirs the revenue department had to maintain a register indicating the assessed income (Jama) or various areas. The account, however, was not, indicated in rupees but in dams which was calculated at the rate of 40 damns to n rupee. This document was called the jama-dami or assessed income based on damns.

    7. Consider the following statements regarding the functioning of mansabdari system during the Mughal period:

    I. The functioning of mansabdari system depended upon a number of factors, including the proper functioning of the dagh (branding) system and of the jagirdari system.
    II. If the dagh system worked badly, the state would be cheated. If the jama-dami was inflated or the jagirdar was not able to get the salary due to him, he would be disaffected or he would not maintain his due contingent.
    III. On balance the mansabdari system worked properly under Shah Jahan, on account of his meticulous attention to administration and men including the appointment of highly competent persons a wazirs.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. I and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The mansabdari system of the Mughals was a complex system. Its efficient functioning depended upon a number of factors, including the proper functioning of the dagh (branding) system and of the jagirdari system. If the dagh system worked badly, the state would be cheated. If the jama-dami was inflated or the jagirdar was not able to get the salary due to him, he would be disaffected or he would not maintain his due contingent. On balance the mansabdari system worked properly under Shah Jahan, on account of his meticulous attention to administration and men including the appointment of highly competent persons a wazirs.

    8. With reference to the ‘ahadis’ of the Mughal period which of the following statements is correct:

    I. In addition to the nansabdars the Mughal emperors used to entertain individual troopers, called ahadis.
    II. The ahadis have been called gentlemen-troopers and received much higher salaries than other troopers.
    III. An ahadi mustered up to five horses, though sometimes two of them shared a horse.

    Codes:

    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. I and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The cavalry, as we have noted, was the principal arm or the Mughal army and the mansabdars provided the overwhelming proportion of it. In addition to the nansabdars the Mughal emperors used to entertain individual troopers, called ahadis. The ahadis have been called gentlemen-troopers and received much higher salaries than other troopers. They were a highly trusted corps, being recruited directly by the emperors and having their own muster-master. An ahadi mustered up to five horses, though sometimes two of them shared a horse. The duties of ahadis were of a miscellaneous character. Most clerks of the imperial offices, the painter of the court, and the foremen in the royal karkhana belonged to this corps.

    9. During the Mughal period, the royal bodyguards of the emperor were called as the:

    a. Wala-shuhis
    b. Banduqchi
    c. Baraq-andaz
    d. Piyadgan

    Answer: a

    Explanation: In addition to the ahadis, the emperors maintained a corp or royal bodyguards (wala-shuhis) and armed palace guards. They were cavalrymen but served on foot in the citadel and the palace.

    10. During the Mughal who among the followings is come under the foot-soldiers?

    a. Servants
    b. News-runner
    c. Porters
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The footmen (piyadgan) formed a numerous but miscellaneous body. Many of them consisted of matchlock-bearers (banduqchi) and received salaries ranging between three and seven rupees a month. This was the infantry proper. But the root-soldiers also included porters, servants, news-runners, swordsmen, wrestlers and slaves. The slaves, though not as numerous as during the Sultanate period, were clothed and fed by the emperor or by a prince.

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