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IAS Prelims Exam: NIOS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Questions Set III

Feb 12, 2016 18:31 IST

    Environment and Ecology has become indispensable for IAS Prelims Exam. Candidates cannot dispense with this section. In future also Importance of Environment and Ecology cannot be underestimated. Following are some MCQs that would help candidates to understand the kinds of questions they are going to face from Environment and Ecology section in IAS Prelims Exam:

    Q1. With reference to the sewage water treatment, tertiary treatment does which of the following?
    1. removes nutrients
    2. removes pathogenic bacteria
    3. reduces the amount of carbon dioxide

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:
    The tertiary treatment is meant to remove nutrients, disinfect for removing pathogenic bacteria, and aeration removes hydrogen sulphide and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and make water healthy and fit for aquatic organisms.

    Q2. which of the following are the effects of thermal pollution on fishes?
    1. Swimming efficiency declines
    2. Decreases their metabolism and affects their growth
    3. Resistance to diseases and parasites decreases
    4. Reduces biological diversity

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1 and 2
    b. Only 1 and 4
    c. Only 1,3 and 4
    d. 1,2 ,3 and 4

    Answer: c

    Explanation:
    Discharge of hot water in water body affects feeding in fishes, increases their metabolism and affects their growth. Their swimming efficiency declines. Running away from predators or chasing prey becomes difficult. Their resistance to diseases and parasites decreases. Due to thermal pollution biological diversity is reduced.

    Q3. which of the following constitutes to soil pollution?
    1. Mixture of plastics
    2. Sewage sludge
    3. Fly ash
    4. Medical and industrial wastes disposed on land

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 2
    b. Only 2 and 4
    c. Only 1,2 and 4
    d. 1,2,3 and 4

    Answer: d

    Explanation:
    Solid waste is a mixture of plastics, cloth, glass, metal and organic matter, sewage, sewage sludge, building debris, generated from households, commercial and industries establishments add to soil pollution. Fly ash, iron and steel slag, medical and industrial wastes disposed on land are important sources of soil pollution. Acid rain and dry deposition of pollutants on land surface also contribute to soil pollution.

    Q4. which of the following gases are released by burring of plastics?
    1. Carbon monoxide
    2. Carbon dioxide
    3. Chlorinated compounds

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:
    Plastic is non biodegradable and burning of plastic in garbage dumps release highly toxic and poisonous gases like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, phosgene, dioxine and other poisonous chlorinated compounds.

    Q5. Consider the following statements regarding non ionising radiations
    1.  They are constituted by the electromagnetic waves at the longer wavelength
    2. They have energies enough to excite the atoms and molecules of the medium through which they pass.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation:
      Non ionising radiations fall in spectrum ranging from near infra-red rays to radio waves. These waves have energies enough to excite the atoms and molecules of the medium through which they pass, causing them to vibrate faster but not strong enough to ionize them.

    Q6. Consider the following statements
    1. Electrically charged particles produced in the nuclear processes can have sufficient energy to knock ions out of the atoms or molecules of the medium, thereby producing ionising radiations.
    2. The ions produced in water molecules can induce reactions that can break bonds in proteins.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation: 
    Electrically charged particles produced in the nuclear processes can have sufficient energy to knock electrons out of the atoms or molecules of the medium, thereby producing ions. The ions produced in water molecules, for example, can induce reactions that can break bonds in proteins and other important molecules. When a gamma ray passes through a cell, the water molecules near the DNA might be ionized and the ions might react with the DNA causing it to break.

    Q7. which of the following is/are the damages caused by radiation to somatic cells?
    1. Fibrosis of the lungs
    2. Reduction of white blood cells
    3. Damage to cells associated with reproduction

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: 
    Effects of somatic radiation damage include reddening of the skin, loss of hair, ulceration, fibrosis of the lungs, the formation of holes in tissue, a reduction of white blood cells, and the induction of cataract in the eyes. Genetic damage refers to damage to cells associated with reproduction.

    Q8. Consider the following statements
    1. Radioactive compounds, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are primary pollutants.
    2. Peroxyacylnitrate (PAN) and Ozone are secondary pollutants.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: 
    The pollutants emitted from directly from sources and are found in atmosphere as they are emitted are known as primary pollutants. The pollutants that are formed in atmosphere are known as secondary pollutants.

    Q9. The biological damage caused by the radiation is determined by which of the following?
    1. Intensity of radiation
    2. Duration of the exposure
    3. Rate of energy loss by particle

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:
    The biological damage caused by a particle depends not only on the total energy deposited but also on the rate of energy loss per unit distance traversed by the particle

    Q10. Which of the following are major pollutants released by automobiles and locomotives?
    1. Carbon dioxide
    2. Carbon monoxide
    3. Nitrogen monoxide

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation:
    The major pollutants released from automobiles, locomotives, aircrafts are Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons. Fuel combustion in automobiles also produces nitrogen dioxide.

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