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IAS Prelims Exam: NIOS HUMAN SOCIETIES Questions Set I

Feb 11, 2016 12:26 IST

    Environment and Ecology has become indispensable for IAS Prelims Exam. Candidates cannot dispense with this section. In future also Importance of Environment and Ecology cannot be underestimated. Following are some MCQs that would help candidates to understand the kinds of questions they are going to face from Environment and Ecology section in IAS Prelims Exam:

    Q1. Consider the following statements

    1. Settlement refers to an organized colony of humans with dwelling units
    2. Few dwelling units set up for a limited period of time is a hamlet.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Settlement refers to an organized colony of humans with dwelling units  and roads they use for travelling. Hunters, herders, adventurers set up camps for a limited period of time as temporary settlements. Few dwelling units forming a settlement is a hamlet

    Q2. Which of the following is/are not primary activities?

    1. Artefact making
    2. Mining
    3. Cloth weaving

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 2
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. None

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Rural settlements are chiefly engaged in primary activities such as agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, artefact (craft) making, cloth weaving etc.

    Q3. Which of the following primarily decide that a settlement is an urban settlement?

    1. Availability of facilities
    2. Nature of settlements
    3. Economic activity

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 3
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation:Urban settlements indulge in non-agricultural activities e.g. industries and manufacturing, trade and commerce, transport and communication, defence and administration.

    Q4. Which of the following social push factors for rural migration?

    1. Religious/political persecution
    2. Racial discrimination
    3. Lack of food

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Villagers are forced to move to cities because of the following social factors. Overpopulation (often one or more members move out of large families and then invite others to come to cities), Religious/political persecution, Slavery/bonded labour, racial discrimination.

    Q5. With reference to push factors, which of the following is/are economic factors responsible for migration of villagers towards cities true?

    1. Better and more opportunities
    2. Fragmentation of family owned land
    3. Lack of food

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Better and more opportunities is pull factor. Fragmentation of family owned land, Lack of food is the economic push factors.

    Q6. Which of the following are pull factors for rural to urban migration?

    1. Territorial expansion of urban areas
    2. Multiple choice of entertainment
    3. Continuous trade and economic expansion

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 3
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Employment, Better and more opportunities, Better social amenities, Better life style, Continuous trade and economic expansion, Territorial expansion.

    Q7. Which of the following facilitate social relationship in urban communities?

    1. Social mobility
    2. Social diversity
    3. Lack of social control

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Social heterogeneity, Freedom from social control, Voluntary associations, Social mobility, lack of familial and social control over decision making leads to more of self interest and facilitate decision-making by an individual and choose one’s career and actions by oneself.

    Q8. Which of the following holds rural communities from social change?

    1. Punishing authority of panchayats
    2. Rural social norms
    3. Superstitions and fear

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Orthodoxy, illiteracy, superstitions and fear keep back youth from moving out or changing profession, caste and religion. Rural social norms have a big influence in preventing violation of traditional norms of rural society. The punishing authority of panchayats also contributes towards keeping back rural youth from taking new initiatives or adopting any change.

    Q9. Which of the following immediate economic drawbacks of rural communities?

    1. Social and cultural institution
    2. Uneconomic land holdings
    3. Poor productivity due to fragmented and barren lands

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Poverty and illiteracy are because of uneconomic land holdings and poor productivity due to fragmented and barren lands.

    Q10. With reference to Jajmani system, which of the following is/are true?

    1. Jajmans are peasants.
    2. Service provider castes that are paid in kind only.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Each village is grouped into (i) jajmans and (ii) service provider castes that are paid in cash or kind. Jajmans are land owners. They come from upper castes while service provider castes are at a middle or lower level.

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