Modern History questions provided in this article have been created from the Bipin Chandra’s Modern History book, considered as the good resource for the IAS preparation. The IAS aspirants must take benefits from such question and it will help them to get a boost during IAS preparation.
1. The provincial governments were given more powers under the system of Dyarchy. Under this system which of the following subjects were remained under the direct control of the Governor?
b. Public Health
d. Local Self-Government
In 1918, Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State, and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, produced their scheme of constitutional reforms which led to the enactment of the Government of India Act of 1919. The Provincial Legislative Councils were enlarged and the majority of their members were to be elected. The provincial governments were given more powers under the system of Dyarchy. Under this system some subjects, such as finance and law and order, were called „reserved‟ subjects and remained under the direct control of the Governor; others such as education, public health, and local self-government, were called „transferred‟ subjects and were to be controlled by ministers responsible to the legislatures. This also meant that while some of the spending departments were transferred, the Governor retained complete control over the finances. The Governor could, moreover, overrule the ministers on any grounds that he considered special.
2. In which of the following year, the Sabarmati Ashram was founded?
Gandhi returned to India in 1915 at the age of 46. He was keen to serve his country and his people. He first decided to study Indian conditions before deciding the field of his work. In 1916 he founded the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad where his friends and followers were to learn and practise the ideals of truth and non-violence.
3. Who among the following had founded the Satyagraha Sabha?
a. Mahatma Gandhi
b. Sardar Ballabhbhai Patel
c. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
d. Mohammad Ali Jauhar
Along with other nationalists, Gandhi was also aroused by the Rowlatt Act. In February 1919, he founded the Satyagraha Sabha whose members took a pledge to disobey the Act and thus to court arrest and imprisonment. Here was a new method of struggle. The nationalist movement, whether under the Moderate or Extremist leadership, had hitherto confined its struggle to agitation. Big meetings and demonstrations, refusal to cooperate with the Government, a boycott of foreign cloth and schools, or individual acts of terrorism were the only forms of political work known to the nationalists. Satyagraha immediately raised the movement to a new> higher level. Nationalists could now act in place of giving only verbal expression to their dissatisfaction and anger. The National Congress was now to become an organisation for political action.
4. Which of the following proposed separate electorate for Muslims for the first time?
a) Indian Council Act, 1892
b) Indian Council Act, 1909
c) Government of India Act, 1919
d) Government of India Act, 1935
The Indian Council Act, 1909 provided for the separate electorate for Muslims for the first time. With this, Lord Minto has been known as 'Father of Communal Electorate'. The provision for separate electorate for Muslims is strongly believed to be the cause of the partition of India in 1947.
5. Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre happened on 13 April 1919 at Amritsar, the crowd gathered to protest against the arrest of which of the following leaders?
a. Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu
b. Dr. Satyapal
c. Both a and b
d. None of the above
The Government was determined to suppress the mass agitation. It repeatedly lathi-charged and fired upon unarmed demonstrators at Bombay, Ahmadabad, Calcutta, Delhi and other cities. Gandhiji gave a call for a mighty hartal on 6 April 1919. The people responded with unprecedented enthusiasm. The Government decided to meet the popular protest with repression, particularly in the Punjab. At this time was perpetrated one of the worst political crimes in modern history. An unarmed but large crowd had gathered on 13 April 1919 at Amritsar (in the Punjab) in the Jallianwalla Bagh, to protest against the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal. General Dyer, the military commander of Amritsar, decided to terrorise the people of Amritsar into complete submission. Jallianwala Bagh was a large open space which was enclosed on three sides by buildings and had only one exit. He surrounded the Bagh (garden) with his army unit, closed the exit with his troops, and then ordered his men to shoot into the trapped crowd with rifles and machine-guns. They fired till their ammunition was exhausted. Thousands were killed and wounded.
6. Which of the following right chronological order with respect to the movements or agitations launched by Mahatma Gandhi?
a. Ahmedabad Mill Strike –Non-Cooperation-Champaran
b. Champaran-Ahmedabad Mill Strike-Non-Cooperation
c. Ahmedabad Mill Strike -Champaran-Non-Cooperation
d. Non-Cooperation -Champaran- Ahmedabad Mill Strike
Gandhi launched the Champaran satyagraha in April 1917 for the rights of indigo farmers in rural Bihar. In March 1918, under the leadership of Gandhi, there was a strike in the cotton mills in Gujarat region which revolved around the issue of plague bonus. The non-cooperation movement was launched on 1st August 1920.
7. Who among the following started the English weekly ‘New India’?
a. Mahatma Gandhi
b. Bipin Chandra Pal
c. Dada Bhai Naoroji
d. Madan Mohan Malviya
Dadabhai Naoroji, known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader. He was a Liberal Party Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Asian to be a British MP.
Naoroji is also credited with the founding of the Indian National Congress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha. His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India brought attention to the draining of India's wealth into Britain. He was also a member of the Second International along with Kautsky and Plekhanov.
8. Consider the following statements about Swami Vivekananda.
1. He founded the Ramakrishna Mission in 1897.
2. Lectures from Colombo to Almora are a book based on his various lectures.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
Swami Vivekananda, who was born as Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk and a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna. He founded the Ramakrishna Mission, which conducts extensive work in health care, disaster relief, rural management, tribal welfare, elementary and higher education and culture.
9. The Indian National Congress as a microscopic minority described by:
a. Lord Curzon
b. Lord Wellesley
c. Lord Dufferin
d. Lord Ripon
Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy in British India between 1884 and 1888. He initially did not take the Indian National Congress much seriously. Then, there was a blast and all of a sudden a Pamphlet appeared titled “The Rising Tide“. Another pamphlet appeared titled “An Old Man’s Home“. These were against the British in general and Lord Dufferin in particular. He called Congress as representative of “microscopic minority of India”.
10. The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were related to:
a. Judicial reforms
b. Educational reforms
c. Constitutional reforms
d. Police reforms
The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were given a shape of policy through the Government of India Act, 1919. The primary objective of the proposals is to increase the association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire.