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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam : Geography- MCQs Set 15

Dec 4, 2015 18:36 IST

    1. Drought is the situation occurring in any area when the mean annual rainfall is less than 75% of the normal rainfall. In this regard, which of the following concept/terms is not true?

    1.Meteorological drought is a situation where there is a reduction in rainfall for a specific period below a specific amount.
    2.Hydrological drought is associated with reduction of water.
    3.Agricultural drought is concerned with the impact of meteorological/hydrological drought on crop yield.
    4.Soil moisture drought is a situation of inadequate soil moisture particularly in rainfed area which may not support crop growth

    .

    Which of the following statements is/are correct?

    (a) 1 and 2
    (b) 2 and 4
    (c) All of these
    (d) 1, 2 and 3

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    The Indian meteorological department has defined drought as a situation occurring in any area when the mean annual rainfall is less than 75%of the normal rainfall.

    2. Which statement regarding Savanna region is correct?

    1. Savanna is tropical grassland.
    2. Savanna eco region is also called world’s paradise of hunters.
    3. In savanna region trees are sparse and chemo-resistance.
    4. Savanna eco region has maximum biodiversity.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?

    (a) 1 and 2
    (b) 2 and 3
    (c) 1 and 3
    (d) All of these

    Ans: a

    Explanation:
    True, savanna is tropical grassland. Savanna eco region is the paradise of hunters. Savanna region has coarse grass and fire resistance trees. Maximum biodiversity found in equatorial rainfall regions.

    3. In terms of temperature, eastern Himalaya are much more cooler and have less rainfall compared to Western Himalayas having warmer and high rainfall. This is because, the Western Himalayas.

    1. Located between the Indus and Kali rivers.
    2. They receive an average rainfall of 100 cm.
    3. They consist of three distinct ranges-Himadari, Himachal and Shiwalik.
    4. They covered with coniferous forests.

    Which is/are correct reasons?

    (a) 1, 2 and 3
    (b) 2, 3 and 4
    (c) 1 and 4
    (d) All of these

    Ans: (d)

    Explanation:
    The high Himalayas mountains in the north of India are important sources for generating and maintaining the climate over the entire Northern belt. The western part of Himalayas gets high rainfall as it is located between the Indus and kali rivers, they receive an average annual rainfall around 100 cm.

    4. Consider the following statements regarding the Wetlands

    1. Wetlands are lands that are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems.
    2. Though the Kolleru Lake provides habitat for a number of resident and migratory birds, including the vulnerable Grey Pelican yet it is not covered within the Ramsar convention.
    3. Chillika lake is a brackish lake, placed on the Montreux Record in 1993 due to siltation, which was choking the mouth of the lake.

    Which of the following statements is/are correct?

    (a) 1 and 2
    (b) Only 2
    (c) 2 and 3
    (d) Only 4

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    The Ramsar sites in India are: Ashtami wetland(Kerala), Bhitarkanika mangroves (Odisha), Bhoj Wetlands (M.P), Chandrataal (H.P), Chilika Lake (Odisha), Deepor Beel (Asom), East Calcutta Wetlands (W.B), Harike Wetlands (Punjab), Hokersar Wetlands (J&K), Kanjli Wetlands (Punjab), Wular lake (J&K), Kolleru Lake (A.P), Loktak Lake (Manipur), Nalsarovar Bird Sanctury (Gujarat), Pong Dam (H.P), Renuka Wetland (H.P), Thrissur Kole Wetlands (Kerala).

    5. Consider the following statements about Harmattan

    1. It is a dry and dusty West African trade wind.
    2. It blows South from the sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between the end of November and the middle of March (winter).
    3. The interaction of the Harmattan with monsoon winds can cause tornadoes.
    4. It can result in spontaneous nose bleed for some.

    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

    (a) Only 1
    (b) 1 and 2
    (c) 2 and 3
    (d) All of these

    Ans: (d)

    Explanation:
    The Harmattan is a dry and dusty West African trade wind. It is cool, extremely dry wind that forms over the Sahara and blows from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between the end of November and the middle of March.

    6. Which of the following are cold ocean currents?

    (1) Benguela current
    (2) Florida current
    (3) Falkland current

    Codes

    (a) 1 and 2 only
    (b) 2 only
    (c) 1 and 3 only
    (d) All of these

    Ans. c

    Explanation:
    Florida current emerges near the equator in Atlantic Ocean. It’s a warm current.

    7. Assertion: (A) Jet stream is the latest theory regarding the origin of the monsoons and has earned world-wide acclaim from the meteorologist.
    Reason: (R) the low latitude upper air shifts from 90⁰ E to 80⁰ E longitude in response to the Northward shifts of the western jet stream in summer.

    Codes:

    (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
    (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A    
    (c) A is true, but R is false
    (d) A is false, but R is true

    Ans: (a)

    Explanation:
    Both statements are true and R is the correct explanation of A. Jet Stream is a band of fast-moving air from West to East, usually found in the middle latitudes in the upper troposphere.

    8. Consider the following matches

    1. Low clouds – Altostratus
    2. Medium clouds -  stratus
    3. High clouds – cirrus
    4. Clouds with vertical extent – Cumulus

    Which of the above matches are correct?

    (a) 1 and 3
    (b) 2 and 4
    (c) 3 and 4
    (d) All of these

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    Altostratus clouds are medium clouds whereas stratus clouds are low clouds.

    9. Consider the following statements are correct about an algal bloom?

    1. Algal blooms occur in fresh water.
    2. Algal blooms occur in marine environment.
    3. Algal blooms concentrations may reach millions of cells per millilitre.
    4. Algal blooms are green in colour.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below

    (a) 1 and 3
    (b) 2 and 4
    (c) 1, 2 and 4
    (d) All of these

    Ans: (d)

    Explanation:
    Algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of Algae in an aquatic system. It occurs in freshwater as well as in marine environments. It occurs at concentrations of hundreds of thousands of cells per millilitre. They are green, but other colours also, depending on the species of Algae.

    10. Consider the following statement regarding the impact of climate change
     
    1. The melting of the glaciers is more in the Northern hemisphere than in the Southern hemisphere.
    2. Mangroves submergence and increased wetlands salinity are likely to occur with sea level rise.
    3. There will be increase in the bleaching of degraded coral reefs in South Asia.

    Which of the statement given above are correct?

    (a) All of these
    (b) 1 and 2
    (c) 2 and 3
    (d) None of these

    Ans: (a)

    Explanation:
    the melting of the glaciers is more in the Northern hemisphere due to concentration of industries and population in Northern hemisphere whereas other options are result of climate change.

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