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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam : Geography- MCQs Set 18

Dec 9, 2015 12:07 IST

    1. consider the following statements

    1. Lines of equal pressure on a map are known as isobars.
    2. Widely spaced isobars indicate a high pressure gradient and high wind speeds.
    3. The pressure gradient force acts parallel to the isobars.



    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

    (a) Only 1
    (b) 1 and 3
    (c) 2 and 3
    (d) All of these

    Ans: (a)

    Explanation:
    The Pressure Gradient Force is generated by the pressure differences between two points. Isobars are lines that show the equal pressure. Closely Spaced Isobars indicate a high pressure gradient and high wind speeds. Widely Spaced Isobars indicate a low pressure gradient and low wind speeds. Direction of Force is the pressure gradient force acts perpendicular to the isobars.

    2. consider the following statements:

    1. Absolute humidity is an amount of water vapour, usually discussed per unit volume.
    2. Specific humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour in the air water mixture to the saturated vapour pressure of water at those conditions.
    3. Relative humidity is the ratio of the water vapour to dry air in a particular mass, and is sometimes referred to as humidity ratio.
    4. A device used to measure relative humidity is called a psychrometer.

    Which of these above statement (s) is/are correct?

    a. 2 and 3
    b. 1,2 and 3
    c. 1 and 4
    d. All of the above

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    Specific humidity is a ratio of water vapour to dry air in a particular mass and sometimes referred to as humidity ratio. Relative humidity is a ratio of partial pressure of water vapour in the air water mixture to the saturated vapour pressure of water at those conditions.

    3. Four relief zones of ocean basins to seaward gradually are:

    a. Continental shelves, continental slopes, deep sea plains and oceanic trenches.
    b. Continental slopes, Continental shelves, deep sea plains and oceanic trenches.
    c. Continental Shelves, Continental slopes, oceanic trenches and deep sea plains.
    d. Continental slopes, Continental shelves, oceanic trenches and deep sea plains.

    Ans: (a)

    Explanation:
    the ocean basins are characterised by these four relief zones. The shallow submerged extension of the continent is called the continental shelve and the continuously sloping portion of the continental margin extending down to the deep sea floor of the abyssal plain is known as continental slope. Deep sea plain is a zone situated between continental slope and oceanic trench. Oceanic trench is the deepest zone of the ocean basin. A trench is an arch shaped depression in the deep ocean floor.

    4. Consider the following statements:

    1. General outline of Atlantic Ocean is that of the letter ‘S’.
    2. The South Atlantic Ocean opens broadly into the Atlantic Ocean.
    3. The North Atlantic Ocean opens broadly into the Atlantic Ocean.
    4. The Atlantic Ocean narrows down towards the Equator.

    Which of the above given statements are correct?

    a. Only 1
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 1,2 and 4
    d. 1, 3 and 4

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    The Atlantic Ocean is located between Europe as well Africa in the East and North America as well as South America in the West, covers one-sixth area of the globe and half of the area of the Pacific Ocean. Its general outline is that of the letter ‘S’. It is narrow towards the Equator. The South Atlantic Ocean opens broadly into the Atlantic Ocean.

    5. Consider the following statements:

    1. In the Indian Ocean the marginal seas are less in number than the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.
    2. Mozambique Channel, Red Sea and Baltic Sea are marginal seas of the Indian Ocean.
    3. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 4000 Meters.
    4. The Indian Ocean is the third largest Ocean after the Pacific and Atlantic.

    Which of the above given statements are correct?

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 4
    c. 1,3 and 4
    d. All of the above

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    The Indian Ocean is smaller than Pacific and Atlantic Ocean is the real extent and is bounded by on all its sides by Asia in the north and the east, Africa is in west, Antarctica in the south east. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 4000 Meters. The marginal seas of the Indian Ocean are less in number than the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. Its significant marginal seas are Mozambique Channel, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

    6. Match the following

            Table - I                             Table - II
    A.    Atlantic Ocean                       1. Kara Sea
    B.    Pacific Ocean                         2. Berring Sea
    C.    Indian Ocean                        3. Gulf of Mexico
    D.    Arctic Ocean                          4. Persian Gulf

    Code:

    a. A-1, B-2, C-4,D-3
    b. A-3, B-2, C-4,D-1
    c. A-2, B-3, C-4,D-1
    d. A-4,B-2, C-1,D-3

    Ans: (b)

    Explanation:
    Kara Sea is the Marginal Sea of the Arctic Ocean, while the Berring sea is the part of Pacific Ocean. Gulf of Mexico is related to Atlantic Ocean and the Persian Gulf is the part of Indian Ocean.

    7. Consider the following statements:

    1. The temperature of the oceans is not uniform.
    2. The temperature variations, in the ocean, occur from Equator to Pole ward and from surface to the ocean bed.
    3. The major source of the temperature of the oceanic water is the Sun.
    4. Besides the Sun some energy is also received from below the bottom and through the compression of the sea water.

    Which of the above given statements are correct?

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. All of the above

    Ans: (d)

    Explanation:
    The temperature of the ocean is not uniform, it differs from latitude to latitude and from surface to bottom. The major source of the temperature of the oceanic water is the Sun but besides the Sun some energy is also received from below the bottom and through the compression of the sea water though insignificant.

    8. Consider the following statements:

    1. Surface temperatures of the oceans are controlled by warm and cold currents.
    2. Warm currents raise the temperature of the affected areas.
    3. The Gulf stream rises the temperature near the eastern coast of North America.
    4. The Gulf Stream is the current of Pacific Ocean.

    Which of the above given statements are correct?

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. 1, 2 and 3
    d. All of these

    Ans: (c)

    Explanation:
    Surface temperatures of the oceans are controlled by warm and cold currents. Warm currents raise the temperature of the affected areas, while cool currents lower down the temperature. Warm current in the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf Stream raises the temperature near the eastern coast of North America and the western coast of Europe. There is no relation of the Gulf Stream to the Pacific Ocean.

    9. Consider the following statements:

    1. Maximum temperature of the ocean is at their surface.
    2. Though the sea temperature decreases with increasing depth yet the rate of decrease of temperature is not uniform.
    3. The change in sea temperature below the depth of 2000 m is negligible.
    4. Diurnal and Annual ranges of temperature cease after the depth of 5 Fathoms and 100 Fathoms respectively.

    Which of the above given statements are correct?

    a. 1 and 2
    b. 3 and 4
    c. 1,2 and 4
    d. All of the above

    Ans: (d)

    Explanation:
    On the basis of density, the ocean is divided into three zones – Surface, thermocline and the deep zone. Maximum temperature of the ocean is at their surface because it directly receives the insolation. Though the sea temperature decreases with increasing depth yet the rate of decrease of temperature is not uniform.

    10. Consider the following statements:

    1. There is direct positive relationship between the rate of evaporation and salinity of the oceans.
    2. Precipitation is inversely related to salinity.
    3. Precipitation is positively related to salinity.
    4. Salinity is reduced at the mouth of rivers.

    Whih of the above given statements are correct?

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. 1,3 and 4
    d. 1, 2 and 4

    Ans: (d)

    Explanation:
    The total quantity of dissolved inorganic solids in water is salinity. There is direct positive relationship between the rate of evaporation and salinity of the oceans, eg., greater the evaporation higher the salinity and vice versa while the precipitation is inversely related to salinity.

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