The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) on 25 November 2015 released Provisional Statement on the Status of Global Climate in 2011-2015. According to it, the global average surface temperature in 2015 is likely to be the warmest on record.
The average surface temperature in 2015 can reach the symbolic and significant milestone of 1° Celsius above the pre-industrial era.
The reason behind such surface temperature is combination of a strong El Nino and human-induced global warming.
Highlights of the analysis
Highlights of 2015
El Nino: The El Nino began in the North Pacific region in the summer of 2014 and spread to the South Pacific and Indian Ocean in 2015. Consistent with typical El Nino impacts, large areas of Central America and the Caribbean recorded below average rainfall.
Ocean heat and sea level rise: The oceans have been absorbing more than 90 percent of the energy that has accumulated in the climate system from human emissions of greenhouse gases. In the first nine months of 2015, global ocean heat content reached record high levels.
Regional temperatures: Significant warmer than average temperatures were recorded over the majority of observed land areas, especially western North America, large areas of South America, Africa and southern and eastern Eurasia.
Heatwaves: A major heatwave affected India in May and June 2015, with average maximum temperatures exceeded 42°C widely and 45°C in some areas. Heatwaves affected Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East through the late spring and summer.
Rainfall and drought: Areas of high rainfall included: southern areas of the USA, Mexico, Bolivia, southern Brazil, southeast Europe, areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. 2015 saw exceptional seasonal rainfall totals in several parts of Burkina Faso and Mali.
There were many instances in 2015 of 24-hour total rainfall patterns exceeding the normal monthly mean of rain. While, dry areas included Central America and the Caribbean, northeast South America, parts of central Europe and Russia, Southeast Asia, Indonesia and southern Africa.
Tropical Cyclones: Globally, a total of 84 tropical storms formed between January 2015 and 10 November 2015. Hurricane Patricia which made landfall in Mexico on 24 October was the strongest hurricane on record. In the Northwest Pacific basin, 25 named storms were recorded. Six typhoons made landfall over China. Four named storms formed in the Northern Indian Ocean.
Arctic and Antarctic: In 2015, the daily maximum sea ice extent, which occurred on 25 February 2015, was the lowest on record at 14.54 million km. The minimum sea ice extent was on 11 September 2015 when the extent was 4.41 million km2, the fourth lowest in the satellite record.
Climate Change Attribution: Out of 79 studies published by Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society between 2011 and 2014, more than half found that anthropogenic climate change contributed to extreme events. The most consistent influence has been on extreme heat.
About Analysis Methods of WMO
Now get latest Current Affairs on mobile, Download # 1 Current Affairs App
What: Released by WMO
When: 25 November 2015